You are hereFeed aggregator

Feed aggregator


Solar system: Cracking up on asteroids

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Solar system: Cracking up on asteroids

Nature 508, 7495 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13222

Authors: Heather A. Viles

A combination of laboratory experiments and modelling shows that diurnal temperature variations are the main cause of rock breakdown and the ensuing formation of powdery rubble on the surface of small asteroids. See Letter p.233

Categories: Literature

Cancer: Damage prevention targeted

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Cancer: Damage prevention targeted

Nature 508, 7495 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13221

Authors: Dan Dominissini & Chuan He

The MTH1 protein prevents oxidized nucleotides from being misincorporated into DNA. Two studies find that selective inhibition of MTH1 by small molecules suppresses tumour growth. See Articles p.215 & p.222

Categories: Literature

Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain

Nature 508, 7495 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13185

Authors: Jeremy A. Miller, Song-Lin Ding, Susan M. Sunkin, Kimberly A. Smith, Lydia Ng, Aaron Szafer, Amanda Ebbert, Zackery L. Riley, Joshua J. Royall, Kaylynn Aiona, James M. Arnold, Crissa Bennet, Darren Bertagnolli, Krissy Brouner, Stephanie Butler, Shiella Caldejon, Anita Carey, Christine Cuhaciyan, Rachel A. Dalley, Nick Dee, Tim A. Dolbeare, Benjamin A. C. Facer, David Feng, Tim P. Fliss, Garrett Gee, Jeff Goldy, Lindsey Gourley, Benjamin W. Gregor, Guangyu Gu, Robert E. Howard, Jayson M. Jochim, Chihchau L. Kuan, Christopher Lau, Chang-Kyu Lee, Felix Lee, Tracy A. Lemon, Phil Lesnar, Bergen McMurray, Naveed Mastan, Nerick Mosqueda, Theresa Naluai-Cecchini, Nhan-Kiet Ngo, Julie Nyhus, Aaron Oldre, Eric Olson, Jody Parente, Patrick D. Parker, Sheana E. Parry, Allison Stevens, Mihovil Pletikos, Melissa Reding, Kate Roll, David Sandman, Melaine Sarreal, Sheila Shapouri, Nadiya V. Shapovalova, Elaine H. Shen, Nathan Sjoquist, Clifford R. Slaughterbeck, Michael Smith, Andy J. Sodt, Derric Williams, Lilla Zöllei, Bruce Fischl, Mark B. Gerstein, Daniel H. Geschwind, Ian A. Glass, Michael J. Hawrylycz, Robert F. Hevner, Hao Huang, Allan R. Jones, James A. Knowles, Pat Levitt, John W. Phillips, Nenad Šestan, Paul Wohnoutka, Chinh Dang, Amy Bernard, John G. Hohmann & Ed S. Lein

The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis

Categories: Literature

A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain

Nature 508, 7495 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13186

Authors: Seung Wook Oh, Julie A. Harris, Lydia Ng, Brent Winslow, Nicholas Cain, Stefan Mihalas, Quanxin Wang, Chris Lau, Leonard Kuan, Alex M. Henry, Marty T. Mortrud, Benjamin Ouellette, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Staci A. Sorensen, Clifford R. Slaughterbeck, Wayne Wakeman, Yang Li, David Feng, Anh Ho, Eric Nicholas, Karla E. Hirokawa, Phillip Bohn, Kevin M. Joines, Hanchuan Peng, Michael J. Hawrylycz, John W. Phillips, John G. Hohmann, Paul Wohnoutka, Charles R. Gerfen, Christof Koch, Amy Bernard, Chinh Dang, Allan R. Jones & Hongkui Zeng

Comprehensive knowledge of the brain’s wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species.

Categories: Literature

MTH1 inhibition eradicates cancer by preventing sanitation of the dNTP pool

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

MTH1 inhibition eradicates cancer by preventing sanitation of the dNTP pool

Nature 508, 7495 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13181

Authors: Helge Gad, Tobias Koolmeister, Ann-Sofie Jemth, Saeed Eshtad, Sylvain A. Jacques, Cecilia E. Ström, Linda M. Svensson, Niklas Schultz, Thomas Lundbäck, Berglind Osk Einarsdottir, Aljona Saleh, Camilla Göktürk, Pawel Baranczewski, Richard Svensson, Ronnie P.-A. Berntsson, Robert Gustafsson, Kia Strömberg, Kumar Sanjiv, Marie-Caroline Jacques-Cordonnier, Matthieu Desroses, Anna-Lena Gustavsson, Roger Olofsson, Fredrik Johansson, Evert J. Homan, Olga Loseva, Lars Bräutigam, Lars Johansson, Andreas Höglund, Anna Hagenkort, Therese Pham, Mikael Altun, Fabienne Z. Gaugaz, Svante Vikingsson, Bastiaan Evers, Martin Henriksson, Karl S. A. Vallin, Olov A. Wallner, Lars G. J. Hammarström, Elisee Wiita, Ingrid Almlöf, Christina Kalderén, Hanna Axelsson, Tatjana Djureinovic, Jordi Carreras Puigvert, Maria Häggblad, Fredrik Jeppsson, Ulf Martens, Cecilia Lundin, Bo Lundgren, Ingrid Granelli, Annika Jenmalm Jensen, Per Artursson, Jonas A. Nilsson, Pål Stenmark, Martin Scobie, Ulrika Warpman Berglund & Thomas Helleday

Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in reactive oxygen species production, damaging both DNA and free dNTPs. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized dNTP pools to prevent incorporation of damaged bases during DNA replication. Although MTH1 is non-essential in normal cells, we show that cancer cells

Categories: Literature

Stereospecific targeting of MTH1 by (S)-crizotinib as an anticancer strategy

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Stereospecific targeting of MTH1 by (S)-crizotinib as an anticancer strategy

Nature 508, 7495 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13194

Authors: Kilian V. M. Huber, Eidarus Salah, Branka Radic, Manuela Gridling, Jonathan M. Elkins, Alexey Stukalov, Ann-Sofie Jemth, Camilla Göktürk, Kumar Sanjiv, Kia Strömberg, Therese Pham, Ulrika Warpman Berglund, Jacques Colinge, Keiryn L. Bennett, Joanna I. Loizou, Thomas Helleday, Stefan Knapp & Giulio Superti-Furga

Activated RAS GTPase signalling is a critical driver of oncogenic transformation and malignant disease. Cellular models of RAS-dependent cancers have been used to identify experimental small molecules, such as SCH51344, but their molecular mechanism of action remains generally unknown. Here, using a chemical proteomic approach,

Categories: Literature

Thermal fatigue as the origin of regolith on small asteroids

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Thermal fatigue as the origin of regolith on small asteroids

Nature 508, 7495 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13153

Authors: Marco Delbo, Guy Libourel, Justin Wilkerson, Naomi Murdoch, Patrick Michel, K. T. Ramesh, Clément Ganino, Chrystele Verati & Simone Marchi

Space missions and thermal infrared observations have shown that small asteroids (kilometre-sized or smaller) are covered by a layer of centimetre-sized or smaller particles, which constitute the regolith. Regolith generation has traditionally been attributed to the fall back of impact ejecta and by the break-up of boulders by micrometeoroid impact. Laboratory experiments and impact models, however, show that crater ejecta velocities are typically greater than several tens of centimetres per second, which corresponds to the gravitational escape velocity of kilometre-sized asteroids. Therefore, impact debris cannot be the main source of regolith on small asteroids. Here we report that thermal fatigue, a mechanism of rock weathering and fragmentation with no subsequent ejection, is the dominant process governing regolith generation on small asteroids. We find that thermal fragmentation induced by the diurnal temperature variations breaks up rocks larger than a few centimetres more quickly than do micrometeoroid impacts. Because thermal fragmentation is independent of asteroid size, this process can also contribute to regolith production on larger asteroids. Production of fresh regolith originating in thermal fatigue fragmentation may be an important process for the rejuvenation of the surfaces of near-Earth asteroids, and may explain the observed lack of low-perihelion, carbonaceous, near-Earth asteroids.

Categories: Literature

Natural decline

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Natural decline

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508007b

Few biology degrees still feature natural history. Is the naturalist a species in crisis?

Categories: Literature

Brain waves

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Brain waves

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508008a

Above the ‘big neuroscience’ commotion, literature plays its part.

Categories: Literature

Electronics: Stick-on skin sensor measures motion

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Electronics: Stick-on skin sensor measures motion

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508010a

A wearable device as thin as a temporary tattoo can measure, store and transmit data on muscle activity, and release embedded drugs into the wearer's skin.Dae-Hyeong Kim at Seoul National University in South Korea and his colleagues built their device (pictured) by placing stretchable

Categories: Literature

Neurobiology: Brain map reveals behaviour links

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Neurobiology: Brain map reveals behaviour links

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508010b

An “atlas” of the fruit-fly brain is the largest yet to map regions that encode specific behaviours, such as walking backwards.Carey Priebe of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and Marta Zlatic of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Farm Research Campus in Ashburn,

Categories: Literature

Palaeontology: Ancient starfish spotted predators

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Palaeontology: Ancient starfish spotted predators

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508010c

Sea stars and some other echinoderms might have had complex visual systems for roughly the past 80 million years.Some existing echinoderms, such as brittle stars, are covered in crystal calcite microlenses that are sensitive to light. To determine the evolutionary history of these structures,

Categories: Literature

Neuroscience: Why babies live hand to mouth

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Neuroscience: Why babies live hand to mouth

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508010d

The reason that newborns put their hands into their mouths is probably because this action is hard-wired into the brain as a basic unit of movement.Angela Sirigu at the French National Centre for Scientific Research in Bron and her colleagues used electrodes to stimulate

Categories: Literature

Animal behaviour: Whale dives into record books

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Animal behaviour: Whale dives into record books

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508011a

A Cuvier's beaked whale has set a new record for the deepest known dive by a mammal, reaching 2,992 metres.Gregory Schorr at the Cascadia Research Collective in Olympia, Washington, and his colleagues attached satellite tags to eight Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris)

Categories: Literature

Cancer genetics: Cancer survives by silencing a gene

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Cancer genetics: Cancer survives by silencing a gene

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508011b

Breast cancer can become resistant to treatment by co-opting a gene-silencing mechanism, reports a team led by Steffi Oesterreich at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania.The hormone oestrogen, which drives many breast cancers, dampens the activity of the tumour-fighting gene HOXC10, and drugs

Categories: Literature

Neuroscience: A broken channel in Huntington's

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Neuroscience: A broken channel in Huntington's

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508011c

In Huntington's disease, neurons become more excitable and die. Researchers have now found a faulty ion channel in astrocytes, another type of brain cell, that could be contributing to this.Baljit Khakh and Michael Sofroniew at the University of California, Los Angeles, and their colleagues

Categories: Literature

Agriculture: Cattle tamed by moving and mixing

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Agriculture: Cattle tamed by moving and mixing

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508011d

Cattle were domesticated in the Middle East before being brought to Africa by migrating humans some 10,000 years ago.Researchers previously thought that African cattle were domesticated there. To better understand this history, Jared Decker and Jeremy Taylor at the University of Missouri in Columbia

Categories: Literature

Ecology: Crabs ready for climate change

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Ecology: Crabs ready for climate change

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508011e

Cold-blooded animals are especially at risk as the climate warms, but the remarkable temperature tolerance of the European green crab (Carcinus maenas; pictured) bodes well for the animal.Carolyn Tepolt and George Somero at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove,

Categories: Literature

Ecology: City birds and plants in decline

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Ecology: City birds and plants in decline

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). doi:10.1038/508011f

Highly read on Proc. R. Soc. B online in FebruaryMost bird and plant species in cities are native to those areas, but their numbers are rapidly decreasing around the world.Myla Aronson at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and her

Categories: Literature

Seven days: 28 March–3 April 2014

Nature - Wed, 04/02/2014 - 00:00

Seven days: 28 March–3 April 2014

Nature 508, 7494 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/508012a

The week in science: Court halts Japanese whaling, misconduct found in controversial stem-cell papers, and a surprising rise in autism diagnoses.

Categories: Literature

Secondary Links