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The dream budget

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

The dream budget

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/nj7565-379a

Author: Ingrid Eisenstadter

The key to a strong grant application is a well-considered and detailed outline of expenses, says grant director Ingrid Eisenstadter.

Categories: Literature

In a new light

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

In a new light

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/524382a

Author: S. R. Algernon

Career opportunities.

Categories: Literature

Clarification

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

Clarification

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/524279a

The News story ‘Stanene makes its debut’ (Nature524, 18; 2015) should have made it clear that the stanene was made by experimentalists at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

Categories: Literature

Dengue virus: Bumps in the road to therapeutic antibodies

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

Dengue virus: Bumps in the road to therapeutic antibodies

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/524295a

Authors: Leslie Goo & Theodore C. Pierson

A human antibody against dengue virus serotype 2 has been shown to protect mice against disease. Structures of the antibody bound to the virus illuminate how it binds different viral forms to prevent virus entry into cells.

Categories: Literature

50 & 100 Years Ago

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

50 & 100 Years Ago

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/524299a

50 Years AgoA Star Called the Sun by Dr. George Gamow — We are reminded of Dante on his journey to the inferior regions: “I would have cast me into molten glass to cool me, when I enter'd, so intense raged the conflagrant

Categories: Literature

Astrophysics: Mystery survivor of a supermassive black hole

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

Astrophysics: Mystery survivor of a supermassive black hole

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/524301a

Authors: John Bally

The G2 cloud in our Galaxy's core has survived an encounter with the central black hole and failed to trigger a major flare-up in the black hole's activity. A promising theory endeavours to explain the cloud's nature.

Categories: Literature

Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14675

Authors: Harold F. Levison, Katherine A. Kretke & Martin J. Duncan

It is widely held that the first step in forming gas-giant planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn, was the production of solid ‘cores’ each with a mass roughly ten times that of the Earth. Getting the cores to form before the solar nebula dissipates (in about one to ten million years; ref. 3) has been a major challenge for planet formation models. Recently models have emerged in which ‘pebbles’ (centimetre-to-metre-sized objects) are first concentrated by aerodynamic drag and then gravitationally collapse to form objects 100 to 1,000 kilometres in size. These ‘planetesimals’ can then efficiently accrete left-over pebbles and directly form the cores of giant planets. This model is known as ‘pebble accretion’; theoretically, it can produce cores of ten Earth masses in only a few thousand years. Unfortunately, full simulations of this process show that, rather than creating a few such cores, it produces a population of hundreds of Earth-mass objects that are inconsistent with the structure of the Solar System. Here we report that this difficulty can be overcome if pebbles form slowly enough to allow the planetesimals to gravitationally interact with one another. In this situation, the largest planetesimals have time to scatter their smaller siblings out of the disk of pebbles, thereby stifling their growth. Our models show that, for a large and physically reasonable region of parameter space, this typically leads to the formation of one to four gas giants between 5 and 15 astronomical units from the Sun, in agreement with the observed structure of the Solar System.

Categories: Literature

Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14677

Authors: Zhu Liu, Dabo Guan, Wei Wei, Steven J. Davis, Philippe Ciais, Jin Bai, Shushi Peng, Qiang Zhang, Klaus Hubacek, Gregg Marland, Robert J. Andres, Douglas Crawford-Brown, Jintai Lin, Hongyan Zhao, Chaopeng Hong, Thomas A. Boden, Kuishuang Feng, Glen P. Peters, Fengming Xi, Junguo Liu, Yuan Li, Yu Zhao, Ning Zeng & Kebin He

Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

Categories: Literature

Highly saline fluids from a subducting slab as the source for fluid-rich diamonds

Nature - Wed, 08/19/2015 - 00:00

Highly saline fluids from a subducting slab as the source for fluid-rich diamonds

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14857

Authors: Yaakov Weiss, John McNeill, D. Graham Pearson, Geoff M. Nowell & Chris J. Ottley

The infiltration of fluids into continental lithospheric mantle is a key mechanism for controlling abrupt changes in the chemical and physical properties of the lithospheric root, as well as diamond formation, yet the origin and composition of the fluids involved are still poorly constrained. Such fluids are trapped within diamonds when they form and so diamonds provide a unique means of directly characterizing the fluids that percolate through the deep continental lithospheric mantle. Here we show a clear chemical evolutionary trend, identifying saline fluids as parental to silicic and carbonatitic deep mantle melts, in diamonds from the Northwest Territories, Canada. Fluid–rock interaction along with in situ melting cause compositional transitions, as the saline fluids traverse mixed peridotite–eclogite lithosphere. Moreover, the chemistry of the parental saline fluids—especially their strontium isotopic compositions—and the timing of host diamond formation suggest that a subducting Mesozoic plate under western North America is the source of the fluids. Our results imply a strong association between subduction, mantle metasomatism and fluid-rich diamond formation, emphasizing the importance of subduction-derived fluids in affecting the composition of the deep lithospheric mantle.

Categories: Literature

How West Antarctica Could Melt If Greenhouse Emissions Continue to Rise

Yale Environment 360 - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 10:23

An international team of scientists has developed the first comprehensive, high-resolution model depicting

View Simulation

Simulation of West Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat how rapidly the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) could melt if greenhouse gas emissions are not brought under control. The study projects that under a high-emissions scenario, the WAIS could lose 80,000 cubic kilometers (19,000 cubic miles) of ice by 2100, increasing sea levels by 8 inches. By 2200, the WAIS could lose 48,000 cubic miles of ice, raising sea levels by a total of 23 inches, the study says. The video shows projected ice loss in the major glaciers feeding into the massive Amundsen Sea Embayment over the next three centuries. The red and orange colors depict the speed of glacial retreat in meters per year. The WAIS is only a fraction of the size of the East Antarctic ice cap, but if the entire WAIS were to melt, global sea levels would rise by roughly 16 feet.

Categories: Environmental News

Rise of the citizen scientist

Nature - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Rise of the citizen scientist

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). doi:10.1038/524265a

From the oceans to the soil, technology is changing the part that amateurs can play in research. But this greater involvement raises concerns that must be addressed.

Categories: Literature

Tackle Nepal’s typhoid problem now

Nature - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Tackle Nepal’s typhoid problem now

Nature 524, 7565 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/524267a

Author: Buddha Basnyat

As post-earthquake conditions increase the risk of a typhoid epidemic, Buddha Basnyat calls for a widespread vaccination programme.

Categories: Literature

Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

ISME - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

The ISME Journal 9, 1905 (September 2015). doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.7

Authors: Rodrigo Mendes & Jos M Raaijmakers

Categories: Literature

Monitoring host responses to the gut microbiota

ISME - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Monitoring host responses to the gut microbiota

The ISME Journal 9, 1908 (September 2015). doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.93

Authors: Joshua S Lichtman, Justin L Sonnenburg & Joshua E Elias

Categories: Literature

Habitat-specific environmental conditions primarily control the microbiomes of the coral Seriatopora hystrix

ISME - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Habitat-specific environmental conditions primarily control the microbiomes of the coral Seriatopora hystrix

The ISME Journal 9, 1916 (September 2015). doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.3

Authors: Olga Pantos, Pim Bongaerts, Paul G Dennis, Gene W Tyson & Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

Categories: Literature

Microbial community successional patterns in beach sands impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

ISME - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Microbial community successional patterns in beach sands impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

The ISME Journal 9, 1928 (September 2015). doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.5

Authors: Luis M Rodriguez-R, Will A Overholt, Christopher Hagan, Markus Huettel, Joel E Kostka & Konstantinos T Konstantinidis

Categories: Literature

Marked seasonality and high spatial variability of protist communities in shallow freshwater systems

ISME - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Marked seasonality and high spatial variability of protist communities in shallow freshwater systems

The ISME Journal 9, 1941 (September 2015). doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.6

Authors: Marianne Simon, Purificación López-García, Philippe Deschamps, David Moreira, Gwendal Restoux, Paola Bertolino & Ludwig Jardillier

Categories: Literature

Higher diversity and abundance of denitrifying microorganisms in environments than considered previously

ISME - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Higher diversity and abundance of denitrifying microorganisms in environments than considered previously

The ISME Journal 9, 1954 (September 2015). doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.9

Authors: Wei Wei, Kazuo Isobe, Tomoyasu Nishizawa, Lin Zhu, Yutaka Shiratori, Nobuhito Ohte, Keisuke Koba, Shigeto Otsuka & Keishi Senoo

Categories: Literature

Microbial carbon metabolism associated with electrogenic sulphur oxidation in coastal sediments

ISME - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

Microbial carbon metabolism associated with electrogenic sulphur oxidation in coastal sediments

The ISME Journal 9, 1966 (September 2015). doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.10

Authors: Diana Vasquez-Cardenas, Jack van de Vossenberg, Lubos Polerecky, Sairah Y Malkin, Regina Schauer, Silvia Hidalgo-Martinez, Veronique Confurius, Jack J Middelburg, Filip JR Meysman & Henricus TS Boschker

Categories: Literature

A phylo-functional core of gut microbiota in healthy young Chinese cohorts across lifestyles, geography and ethnicities

ISME - Tue, 08/18/2015 - 00:00

A phylo-functional core of gut microbiota in healthy young Chinese cohorts across lifestyles, geography and ethnicities

The ISME Journal 9, 1979 (September 2015). doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.11

Authors: Jiachao Zhang, Zhuang Guo, Zhengsheng Xue, Zhihong Sun, Menghui Zhang, Lifeng Wang, Guoyang Wang, Fang Wang, Jie Xu, Hongfang Cao, Haiyan Xu, Qiang Lv, Zhi Zhong, Yongfu Chen, Sudu Qimuge, Bilige Menghe, Yi Zheng, Liping Zhao, Wei Chen & Heping Zhang

Categories: Literature

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