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Corrigendum: Modulating the therapeutic response of tumours to dietary serine and glycine starvation

Nature - Wed, 08/02/2017 - 00:00

Corrigendum: Modulating the therapeutic response of tumours to dietary serine and glycine starvation

Nature 548, 7665 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature23471

Author: Oliver D. K. Maddocks, Dimitris Athineos, Eric C. Cheung, Pearl Lee, Tong Zhang, Niels J. F. van den Broek, Gillian M. Mackay, Christiaan F. Labuschagne, David Gay, Flore Kruiswijk, Julianna Blagih, David F. Vincent, Kirsteen J. Campbell, Fatih Ceteci, Owen J. Sansom, Karen Blyth & Karen H. Vousden

Nature544, 372–376 (2017); doi:10.1038/nature22056In this Letter, the ‘Diet 1’ formulation was incorrectly referenced as our previously published diet (ref. 7 of the Letter). The correct amino acid composition of the diets was stated in the Methods,

Categories: Literature

Correction

Nature - Wed, 08/02/2017 - 00:00

Correction

Nature 548, 7665 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/548124a

The Toolbox article 'Single-cell sequencing made simple' (Nature547, 125–126; 2017) omitted the first name and affiliation of John Marioni from Cancer Research UK. Furthermore, the name of FlowJo's software is SeqGeq, not GenSeq.

Categories: Literature

HIV milestone, discrimination suit and China's AI plans

Nature - Tue, 08/01/2017 - 13:00

HIV milestone, discrimination suit and China's AI plans

Nature 547, 7664 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/547384a

The week in science: 21–27 July 2017.

Categories: Literature

Seek climate advice through established routes

Nature - Tue, 08/01/2017 - 00:00

Seek climate advice through established routes

Nature 548, 7665 (2017). doi:10.1038/548005a

If the Trump administration has questions on global warming, it should direct them to the national academy rather than setting up a spurious ‘red team–blue team’ debate.

Categories: Literature

Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins

Nature - Tue, 08/01/2017 - 00:00

Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins

Nature 548, 7665 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/548015a

Author: Jeff Tollefson

Officials at the US Environmental Protection Agency are consulting global-warming sceptics as they weigh up a technical review.

Categories: Literature

Bacteria could be key to freeing South Pacific of mosquitoes

Nature - Tue, 08/01/2017 - 00:00

Bacteria could be key to freeing South Pacific of mosquitoes

Nature 548, 7665 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/548017a

Author: Emma Marris

Islands in the region could be rid of the biting insects within a decade.

Categories: Literature

Prove Paris was more than paper promises

Nature - Tue, 08/01/2017 - 00:00

Prove Paris was more than paper promises

Nature 548, 7665 (2017). doi:10.1038/548025a

Authors: David G. Victor, Keigo Akimoto, Yoichi Kaya, Mitsutsune Yamaguchi, Danny Cullenward & Cameron Hepburn

All major industrialized countries are failing to meet the pledges they made to cut greenhouse-gas emissions, warn David G. Victor and colleagues.

Categories: Literature

Climate Change Linked to Rising Suicide Rates in India, Study Finds

Yale Environment 360 - Mon, 07/31/2017 - 13:17

A new study links rising temperatures and subsequent crop failures to more than 59,000 suicides in India over the past 30 years.  

Read more on E360 →

Categories: Environmental News

How A Surge in Visitors Is Overwhelming America’s National Parks

Yale Environment 360 - Mon, 07/31/2017 - 04:30

The growing crowds at U.S. National Parks have become unmanageable, jeopardizing the natural experience the parks were created to provide. With attendance this summer continuing to shatter records, officials are considering limiting use of the parks in order to save them. 

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Categories: Environmental News

High-temperature crystallization of nanocrystals into three-dimensional superlattices

Nature - Mon, 07/31/2017 - 00:00

High-temperature crystallization of nanocrystals into three-dimensional superlattices

Nature 548, 7666 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature23308

Authors: Liheng Wu, Joshua J. Willis, Ian Salmon McKay, Benjamin T. Diroll, Jian Qin, Matteo Cargnello & Christopher J. Tassone

Crystallization of colloidal nanocrystals into superlattices represents a practical bottom-up process with which to create ordered metamaterials with emergent functionalities. With precise control over the size, shape and composition of individual nanocrystals, various single- and multi-component nanocrystal superlattices have been produced, the lattice structures and chemical compositions of which can be accurately engineered. Nanocrystal superlattices are typically prepared by carefully controlling the assembly process through solvent evaporation or destabilization or through DNA-guided crystallization. Slow solvent evaporation or cooling of nanocrystal solutions (over hours or days) is the key element for successful crystallization processes. Here we report the rapid growth (seconds) of micrometre-sized, face-centred-cubic, three-dimensional nanocrystal superlattices during colloidal synthesis at high temperatures (more than 230 degrees Celsius). Using in situ small-angle X-ray scattering, we observe continuous growth of individual nanocrystals within the lattices, which results in simultaneous lattice expansion and fine nanocrystal size control due to the superlattice templates. Thermodynamic models demonstrate that balanced attractive and repulsive interparticle interactions dictated by the ligand coverage on nanocrystal surfaces and nanocrystal core size are responsible for the crystallization process. The interparticle interactions can also be controlled to form different superlattice structures, such as hexagonal close-packed lattices. The rational assembly of various nanocrystal systems into novel materials is thus facilitated for both fundamental research and for practical applications in the fields of magnetics, electronics and catalysis.

Categories: Literature

Australia is Building a 1,250-Mile Highway for Electric Vehicles

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 07/27/2017 - 10:27

Australia will install 18 electric vehicle fast-charging stations along a nearly 1,250-mile stretch of coastal highway in Queensland, creating one of the world’s longest EV roadways, Reuters reported

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Categories: Environmental News

Island in the Fires: A Forest Sanctuary for Orangutans Hangs On

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 07/27/2017 - 06:31

The winner of the 2017 Yale Environment 360 Video Contest explores how logging and prolonged fire seasons on the island of Borneo are menacing the world’s largest population of orangutans as well as other endangered primates. 

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Categories: Environmental News

The World Lost a Nebraska-Sized Chunk of Forest in 2015

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 07/26/2017 - 10:09

The world lost nearly 49 million acres of forest in 2015 to logging, wildfires, palm oil plantations, and other development activity, according to new data by the conservation group Global Forest Watch. That is equal to an area roughly the size of Nebraska, Climate Central reported

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Categories: Environmental News

Stem cells: The cost of perpetual youth

Nature - Wed, 07/26/2017 - 00:00

Stem cells: The cost of perpetual youth

Nature 548, 7666 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature23102

Authors: Thomas P. Zwaka

The ability to become nearly any cell type is restricted to eggs, sperm and primitive stem cells in very early embryos. Two studies reveal that maintaining this pluripotent state in vitro comes at a cost. See Letters p.219 & p.224

Categories: Literature

Ecology: Contests between species aid biodiversity

Nature - Wed, 07/26/2017 - 00:00

Ecology: Contests between species aid biodiversity

Nature 548, 7666 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature23103

Authors: James P. O'Dwyer

A modelling approach used to investigate competition between different species provides insight into how contests that have multiple players can help to maintain biodiversity. See Letter p.210

Categories: Literature

Higher-order interactions stabilize dynamics in competitive network models

Nature - Wed, 07/26/2017 - 00:00

Higher-order interactions stabilize dynamics in competitive network models

Nature 548, 7666 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature23273

Authors: Jacopo Grilli, György Barabás, Matthew J. Michalska-Smith & Stefano Allesina

Ecologists have long sought a way to explain how the remarkable biodiversity observed in nature is maintained. On the one hand, simple models of interacting competitors cannot produce the stable persistence of very large ecological communities. On the other hand, neutral models, in which species do not interact and diversity is maintained by immigration and speciation, yield unrealistically small fluctuations in population abundance, and a strong positive correlation between a species’ abundance and its age, contrary to empirical evidence. Models allowing for the robust persistence of large communities of interacting competitors are lacking. Here we show that very diverse communities could persist thanks to the stabilizing role of higher-order interactions, in which the presence of a species influences the interaction between other species. Although higher-order interactions have been studied for decades, their role in shaping ecological communities is still unclear. The inclusion of higher-order interactions in competitive network models stabilizes dynamics, making species coexistence robust to the perturbation of both population abundance and parameter values. We show that higher-order interactions have strong effects in models of closed ecological communities, as well as of open communities in which new species are constantly introduced. In our framework, higher-order interactions are completely defined by pairwise interactions, facilitating empirical parameterization and validation of our models.

Categories: Literature

Prolonged Mek1/2 suppression impairs the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells

Nature - Wed, 07/26/2017 - 00:00

Prolonged Mek1/2 suppression impairs the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells

Nature 548, 7666 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature23274

Authors: Jiho Choi, Aaron J. Huebner, Kendell Clement, Ryan M. Walsh, Andrej Savol, Kaixuan Lin, Hongcang Gu, Bruno Di Stefano, Justin Brumbaugh, Sang-Yong Kim, Jafar Sharif, Christopher M. Rose, Arman Mohammad, Junko Odajima, Jean Charron, Toshi Shioda, Andreas Gnirke, Steven Gygi, Haruhiko Koseki, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, Andrew Xiao, Alexander Meissner & Konrad Hochedlinger

Concomitant activation of the Wnt pathway and suppression of Mapk signalling by two small molecule inhibitors (2i) in the presence of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) (hereafter termed 2i/L) induces a naive state in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells that resembles the inner cell mass (ICM) of the pre-implantation embryo. Since the ICM exists only transiently in vivo, it remains unclear how sustained propagation of naive ES cells in vitro affects their stability and functionality. Here we show that prolonged culture of male mouse ES cells in 2i/L results in irreversible epigenetic and genomic changes that impair their developmental potential. Furthermore, we find that female ES cells cultured in conventional serum plus LIF medium phenocopy male ES cells cultured in 2i/L. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the inhibition of Mek1/2 is predominantly responsible for these effects, in part through the downregulation of DNA methyltransferases and their cofactors. Finally, we show that replacement of the Mek1/2 inhibitor with a Src inhibitor preserves the epigenetic and genomic integrity as well as the developmental potential of ES cells. Taken together, our data suggest that, although short-term suppression of Mek1/2 in ES cells helps to maintain an ICM-like epigenetic state, prolonged suppression results in irreversible changes that compromise their developmental potential.

Categories: Literature

Derivation of ground-state female ES cells maintaining gamete-derived DNA methylation

Nature - Wed, 07/26/2017 - 00:00

Derivation of ground-state female ES cells maintaining gamete-derived DNA methylation

Nature 548, 7666 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature23286

Authors: Masaki Yagi, Satoshi Kishigami, Akito Tanaka, Katsunori Semi, Eiji Mizutani, Sayaka Wakayama, Teruhiko Wakayama, Takuya Yamamoto & Yasuhiro Yamada

Inhibitors of Mek1/2 and Gsk3β, known as 2i, enhance the derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and promote ground-state pluripotency in rodents. Here we show that the derivation of female mouse ES cells in the presence of 2i and leukaemia inhibitory factor (2i/L ES cells) results in a widespread loss of DNA methylation, including a massive erasure of genomic imprints. Despite this global loss of DNA methylation, early-passage 2i/L ES cells efficiently differentiate into somatic cells, and this process requires genome-wide de novo DNA methylation. However, the majority of imprinting control regions (ICRs) remain unmethylated in 2i/L-ES-cell-derived differentiated cells. Consistently, 2i/L ES cells exhibit impaired autonomous embryonic and placental development by tetraploid embryo complementation or nuclear transplantation. We identified the derivation conditions of female ES cells that display 2i/L-ES-cell-like transcriptional signatures while preserving gamete-derived DNA methylation and autonomous developmental potential. Upon prolonged culture, however, female ES cells exhibited ICR demethylation regardless of culture conditions. Our results provide insights into the derivation of female ES cells reminiscent of the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos.

Categories: Literature

Big names in statistics want to shake up much-maligned P value

Nature - Wed, 07/26/2017 - 00:00

Big names in statistics want to shake up much-maligned P value

Nature 548, 7665 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2017.22375

Author: Dalmeet Singh Chawla

One of scientists’ favourite statistics — the P value — should face tougher standards, say leading researchers.

Categories: Literature

Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs

Nature - Wed, 07/26/2017 - 00:00

Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs

Nature 548, 7665 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature23282

Authors: Yalin Zhang, Min Soo Kim, Baosen Jia, Jingqi Yan, Juan Pablo Zuniga-Hertz, Cheng Han & Dongsheng Cai

It has been proposed that the hypothalamus helps to control ageing, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Here we develop several mouse models in which hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells that co-express Sox2 and Bmi1 are ablated, as we observed that ageing in mice started with a

Categories: Literature

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