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Correction

Nature - Mon, 03/16/2015 - 00:00

Correction

Nature 519, 7543 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/519287a

The Comment 'Put people at the centre of global risk management' (J. W.Erismanet al. Nature519, 151–153; 2015 ) gave an incorrect affiliation for co-author Philippe Ciais. He is a senior researcher at the Laboratory for

Categories: Literature

Obama Administration Doubles Size of Two Key California Marine Sanctuaries

Yale Environment 360 - Fri, 03/13/2015 - 10:53

The Obama administration yesterday expanded protections for two major marine sanctuaries off the coast of San Francisco,

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Sea stars on the shores of Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary California — the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank national marine sanctuaries — doubling their extent to create a protected area the size of Connecticut. The sanctuaries encompass a wide array of habitats, including estuarine wetlands, rocky intertidal habitat, open ocean, and shallow marine banks, as well as areas of major upwelling where nutrients come to the surface and support a vast array of marine life, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said. The expansion comes after more than a decade of of community action, scientific research, and political effort. Although it was nearly unanimously supported by San Francisco Bay Area residents, the expansion faced strong opposition from the oil and gas industry, which will now be barred from drilling in the region.

Categories: Environmental News

Bubbling From Melting Glaciers Makes Fjords Noisiest Places in Oceans

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 03/12/2015 - 10:57

Bubbles gushing from melting glaciers and their icebergs make fjords the noisiest places in the oceans, according to

Listen to sound of bubbles escaping melting ice. research published in Geophysical Research Letters. Researchers used underwater microphones to record noise levels in three bays where glaciers flow into ocean fjords and icebergs calve from glaciers. They found that average noise levels from bubbles in these fjords exceeded those generated by all other sources, including weather, wildlife, and machines such as ships and sonar devices. Glacial calving contributed some of the noise, but the constant melting and bubbling was the real culprit, the researchers said. Their findings raise questions about how the underwater noise in the fjords — which are foraging hotspots for seabirds and marine mammals and important breeding habitat for harbor seals — will affect animals as climate change further increases melting rates.

Categories: Environmental News

On the River Nile, a Move to Avert a Conflict Over Water

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 03/12/2015 - 07:29

Ethiopia’s plans to build Africa’s largest hydroelectric dam on the Nile have sparked tensions with Egypt, which depends on the river to irrigate its arid land. But after years of tensions, an international agreement to share the Nile’s waters may be in sight. BY FRED PEARCE

Categories: Environmental News

Don’t edit the human germ line

Nature - Thu, 03/12/2015 - 00:00

Don’t edit the human germ line

Nature 519, 7544 (2015). doi:10.1038/519410a

Authors: Edward Lanphier, Fyodor Urnov, Sarah Ehlen Haecker, Michael Werner & Joanna Smolenski

Heritable human genetic modifications pose serious risks, and the therapeutic benefits are tenuous, warn Edward Lanphier, Fyodor Urnov and colleagues.

Categories: Literature

Warming To Sharply Increase For Remainder of 21st Century, Paper Says

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 11:52

Within a decade, the earth — and particularly the northern hemisphere — will begin warming at rates unprecedented in the last 1,000 to 2,000 years, according to new research in the journal Nature Climate Change. Examining the rate of temperature increases in 40-year intervals over the past 2,000 years, the scientists concluded that temperatures had fluctuated up or down by about 0.2 degrees F over each interval. In the past 40 years, however, warming has approached 0.4 degrees F per decade. And beginning in 2020, temperatures could start to rise by 0.7 degrees F per decade and continue at that rate until at least 2100. Warming will be especially pronounced in the Arctic, where temperatures are expected to soar by 1.1 degrees F by 2040. The scientists warned that such greenhouse gas-driven warming is moving the planet into an unstable climatic state.

Categories: Environmental News

Systems biology: Defiant daughters and coordinated cousins

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Systems biology: Defiant daughters and coordinated cousins

Nature 519, 7544 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14210

Authors: Andreas Hilfinger & Johan Paulsson

Genetically identical cells can have many variable properties. A study of correlations between cells in a lineage explains paradoxical inheritance laws, in which mother and daughter cells seem less similar than cousins. See Letter p.468

Categories: Literature

Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets

Nature 519, 7544 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14272

Authors: N. J. Cira, A. Benusiglio & M. Prakash

Controlling the wetting behaviour of liquids on surfaces is important for a variety of industrial applications such as water-repellent coatings and lubrication. Liquid behaviour on a surface can range from complete spreading, as in the ‘tears of wine’ effect, to minimal wetting as observed on a superhydrophobic lotus leaf. Controlling droplet movement is important in microfluidic liquid handling, on self-cleaning surfaces and in heat transfer. Droplet motion can be achieved by gradients of surface energy. However, existing techniques require either a large gradient or a carefully prepared surface to overcome the effects of contact line pinning, which usually limit droplet motion. Here we show that two-component droplets of well-chosen miscible liquids such as propylene glycol and water deposited on clean glass are not subject to pinning and cause the motion of neighbouring droplets over a distance. Unlike the canonical predictions for these liquids on a high-energy surface, these droplets do not spread completely but exhibit an apparent contact angle. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that these droplets are stabilized by evaporation-induced surface tension gradients and that they move in response to the vapour emitted by neighbouring droplets. Our fundamental understanding of this robust system enabled us to construct a wide variety of autonomous fluidic machines out of everyday materials.

Categories: Literature

Lineage correlations of single cell division time as a probe of cell-cycle dynamics

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Lineage correlations of single cell division time as a probe of cell-cycle dynamics

Nature 519, 7544 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14318

Authors: Oded Sandler, Sivan Pearl Mizrahi, Noga Weiss, Oded Agam, Itamar Simon & Nathalie Q. Balaban

Stochastic processes in cells are associated with fluctuations in mRNA, protein production and degradation, noisy partition of cellular components at division, and other cell processes. Variability within a clonal population of cells originates from such stochastic processes, which may be amplified or reduced by deterministic factors. Cell-to-cell variability, such as that seen in the heterogeneous response of bacteria to antibiotics, or of cancer cells to treatment, is understood as the inevitable consequence of stochasticity. Variability in cell-cycle duration was observed long ago; however, its sources are still unknown. A central question is whether the variance of the observed distribution originates from stochastic processes, or whether it arises mostly from a deterministic process that only appears to be random. A surprising feature of cell-cycle-duration inheritance is that it seems to be lost within one generation but to be still present in the next generation, generating poor correlation between mother and daughter cells but high correlation between cousin cells. This observation suggests the existence of underlying deterministic factors that determine the main part of cell-to-cell variability. We developed an experimental system that precisely measures the cell-cycle duration of thousands of mammalian cells along several generations and a mathematical framework that allows discrimination between stochastic and deterministic processes in lineages of cells. We show that the inter- and intra-generation correlations reveal complex inheritance of the cell-cycle duration. Finally, we build a deterministic nonlinear toy model for cell-cycle inheritance that reproduces the main features of our data. Our approach constitutes a general method to identify deterministic variability in lineages of cells or organisms, which may help to predict and, eventually, reduce cell-to-cell heterogeneity in various systems, such as cancer cells under treatment.

Categories: Literature

A criticism of ‘science fandom’ prompts online reflection

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

A criticism of ‘science fandom’ prompts online reflection

Nature 519, 7543 (2015). doi:10.1038/519265f

Author: Mark Zastrow

An essay argues that the rapid sharing of science stories on social media can spread misinformation.

Categories: Literature

Materials chemistry: Cooperative carbon capture

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Materials chemistry: Cooperative carbon capture

Nature 519, 7543 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14212

Authors: Andrew I. Cooper

Enzymes bind carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in a highly precise way, whereas synthetic materials just passively adsorb it. Or do they? A study of compounds called metal–organic frameworks now challenges this picture. See Article p.303

Categories: Literature

Cancer immunotherapy: Dendritic-cell vaccines on the move

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Cancer immunotherapy: Dendritic-cell vaccines on the move

Nature 519, 7543 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14211

Authors: Rachel Lubong Sabado & Nina Bhardwaj

Vaccines that induce an antitumour immune response are disappointingly ineffective in treating patients with cancer. Pre-conditioning the vaccination site to induce inflammation might provide a way to improve this therapy. See Letter p.366

Categories: Literature

Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks

Nature 519, 7543 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14327

Authors: Thomas M. McDonald, Jarad A. Mason, Xueqian Kong, Eric D. Bloch, David Gygi, Alessandro Dani, Valentina Crocellà, Filippo Giordanino, Samuel O. Odoh, Walter S. Drisdell, Bess Vlaisavljevich, Allison L. Dzubak, Roberta Poloni, Sondre K. Schnell, Nora Planas, Kyuho Lee, Tod Pascal, Liwen F. Wan, David Prendergast, Jeffrey B. Neaton, Berend Smit, Jeffrey B. Kortright, Laura Gagliardi, Silvia Bordiga, Jeffrey A. Reimer & Jeffrey R. Long

The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing

Categories: Literature

Visualizing transient Watson–Crick-like mispairs in DNA and RNA duplexes

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Visualizing transient Watson–Crick-like mispairs in DNA and RNA duplexes

Nature 519, 7543 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14227

Authors: Isaac J. Kimsey, Katja Petzold, Bharathwaj Sathyamoorthy, Zachary W. Stein & Hashim M. Al-Hashimi

Rare tautomeric and anionic nucleobases are believed to have fundamental biological roles, but their prevalence and functional importance has remained elusive because they exist transiently, in low abundance, and involve subtle movements of protons that are difficult to visualize. Using NMR relaxation dispersion, we show

Categories: Literature

Crystal structure of the eukaryotic origin recognition complex

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Crystal structure of the eukaryotic origin recognition complex

Nature 519, 7543 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14239

Authors: Franziska Bleichert, Michael R. Botchan & James M. Berger

Initiation of cellular DNA replication is tightly controlled to sustain genomic integrity. In eukaryotes, the heterohexameric origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential for coordinating replication onset. Here we describe the crystal structure of Drosophila ORC at 3.5 Å resolution, showing that the 270 kilodalton initiator

Categories: Literature

Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients

Nature 519, 7543 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14320

Authors: Duane A. Mitchell, Kristen A. Batich, Michael D. Gunn, Min-Nung Huang, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Smita K. Nair, Kendra L. Congdon, Elizabeth A. Reap, Gary E. Archer, Annick Desjardins, Allan H. Friedman, Henry S. Friedman, James E. Herndon II, April Coan, Roger E. McLendon, David A. Reardon, James J. Vredenburgh, Darell D. Bigner & John H. Sampson

After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vaccines have shown limited promise in the treatment of patients with advanced cancers including glioblastoma, the factors dictating DC vaccine efficacy remain poorly understood. Here we show that pre-conditioning the vaccine site with a potent recall antigen such as tetanus/diphtheria (Td) toxoid can significantly improve the lymph node homing and efficacy of tumour-antigen-specific DCs. To assess the effect of vaccine site pre-conditioning in humans, we randomized patients with glioblastoma to pre-conditioning with either mature DCs or Td unilaterally before bilateral vaccination with DCs pulsed with Cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) RNA. We and other laboratories have shown that pp65 is expressed in more than 90% of glioblastoma specimens but not in surrounding normal brain, providing an unparalleled opportunity to subvert this viral protein as a tumour-specific target. Patients given Td had enhanced DC migration bilaterally and significantly improved survival. In mice, Td pre-conditioning also enhanced bilateral DC migration and suppressed tumour growth in a manner dependent on the chemokine CCL3. Our clinical studies and corroborating investigations in mice suggest that pre-conditioning with a potent recall antigen may represent a viable strategy to improve anti-tumour immunotherapy.

Categories: Literature

All in good time

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

All in good time

Nature 519, 7542 (2015). doi:10.1038/519129b

Stratigraphers have yet to decide whether the Anthropocene is a new unit of geological time.

Categories: Literature

In the beginning

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

In the beginning

Nature 519, 7542 (2015). doi:10.1038/519130a

As the first true science journal marks 350 years, we must defend scholarly pursuits.

Categories: Literature

Animal behaviour: Post-menopausal whales lead the hunt

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Animal behaviour: Post-menopausal whales lead the hunt

Nature 519, 7542 (2015). doi:10.1038/519132a

After they reach menopause, female killer whales help their kin to survive by sharing their hunting expertise.Humans, killer whales (Orcinus orca; pictured) and one other whale species are the only animals whose females are known to experience a long post-reproductive life.

Categories: Literature

Climate change: Global warming could speed up

Nature - Wed, 03/11/2015 - 00:00

Climate change: Global warming could speed up

Nature 519, 7542 (2015). doi:10.1038/519132b

The rate of global warming could more than double over the coming decades, as greenhouse gases build up in Earth's atmosphere.Steven Smith and his colleagues at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in College Park, Maryland, analysed the rate of warming in global climate simulations,

Categories: Literature

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