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Ebola: learn from the past

Nature - Thu, 10/09/2014 - 00:00

Ebola: learn from the past

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/514299a

Author: David L Heymann

Drawing on his experiences in previous outbreaks, David L. Heymann calls for rapid diagnosis, patient isolation, community engagement and clinical trials.

Categories: Literature

Floods Will Be Chronic Problem for East Coast Cities by 2030, Study Says

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 11:24

By 2030, residents of Washington, D.C., and Annapolis, Maryland, could be experiencing more than 150 tidal floods every year — up

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Tidal flood frequency from an average of just 50 today — according to a recent study of sea level rise and coastal flood risk along the U.S. East Coast by the Union of Concerned Scientists. In another 15 years, that number could jump to 400 floods annually, the study says. A home purchased in some of the more flood-prone parts of those two cities could see daily flooding before a 30-year mortgage was paid off, according to the study. The increased frequency will be driven by sea level rise, researchers say, which exacerbates the effects of so-called “nuisance flooding” linked to tidal cycles, rainfall, and storm surges. Other cities on the Atlantic coast will also see increased flood frequency, including Miami and Atlantic City, New Jersey, which can expect an average of 240 flood days per year by 2045.

Categories: Environmental News

Interview: A Call for Climate Goals </br>Other Than Two Degrees Celsius

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 07:31

When international delegates meet in Paris next year to negotiate a new climate agreement, they'll be aiming to keep the global average temperature from rising more than 2 degrees David Victor Celsius above pre-industrial levels, the maximum seen by many for avoiding the worst impacts of climate change. But David Victor, a professor of international relations at University of California San Diego, argued in a recent controversial commentary in Nature that the 2-degree goal is now unattainable and should be replaced by more meaningful goals. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Victor explains why he believes the 2-degree threshold has failed to position policy makers to take serious action on climate change and outlines the "basket of indicators" that he and his co-author are suggesting be used instead.
Read the interview.

Categories: Environmental News

HIV: A stamp on the envelope

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

HIV: A stamp on the envelope

Nature 514, 7523 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13926

Authors: Rogier W. Sanders & John P. Moore

A high-resolution crystal structure of the HIV-1 Env trimer proteins, in their form before they fuse with target cells, will aid the design of vaccines that elicit protective immune responses to this protein complex. See Article p.455

Categories: Literature

Structure and immune recognition of trimeric pre-fusion HIV-1 Env

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Structure and immune recognition of trimeric pre-fusion HIV-1 Env

Nature 514, 7523 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13808

Authors: Marie Pancera, Tongqing Zhou, Aliaksandr Druz, Ivelin S. Georgiev, Cinque Soto, Jason Gorman, Jinghe Huang, Priyamvada Acharya, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Gilad Ofek, Guillaume B. E. Stewart-Jones, Jonathan Stuckey, Robert T. Bailer, M. Gordon Joyce, Mark K. Louder, Nancy Tumba, Yongping Yang, Baoshan Zhang, Myron S. Cohen, Barton F. Haynes, John R. Mascola, Lynn Morris, James B. Munro, Scott C. Blanchard, Walther Mothes, Mark Connors & Peter D. Kwong

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) spike, comprising three gp120 and three gp41 subunits, is a conformational machine that facilitates HIV-1 entry by rearranging from a mature unliganded state, through receptor-bound intermediates, to a post-fusion state. As the sole viral antigen on

Categories: Literature

Nobel for microscopy that reveals inner world of cells

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Nobel for microscopy that reveals inner world of cells

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2014.16097

Author: Richard Van Noorden

Three scientists used fluorescent molecules to defy the limits of conventional optical microscopes.

Categories: Literature

Binary orbits as the driver of γ-ray emission and mass ejection in classical novae

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Binary orbits as the driver of γ-ray emission and mass ejection in classical novae

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13773

Authors: Laura Chomiuk, Justin D. Linford, Jun Yang, T. J. O’Brien, Zsolt Paragi, Amy J. Mioduszewski, R. J. Beswick, C. C. Cheung, Koji Mukai, Thomas Nelson, Valério A. R. M. Ribeiro, Michael P. Rupen, J. L. Sokoloski, Jennifer Weston, Yong Zheng, Michael F. Bode, Stewart Eyres, Nirupam Roy & Gregory B. Taylor

Classical novae are the most common astrophysical thermonuclear explosions, occurring on the surfaces of white dwarf stars accreting gas from companions in binary star systems. Novae typically expel about 10−4 solar masses of material at velocities exceeding 1,000 kilometres per second. However, the mechanism of mass ejection in novae is poorly understood, and could be dominated by the impulsive flash of thermonuclear energy, prolonged optically thick winds or binary interaction with the nova envelope. Classical novae are now routinely detected at gigaelectronvolt γ-ray wavelengths, suggesting that relativistic particles are accelerated by strong shocks in the ejecta. Here we report high-resolution radio imaging of the γ-ray-emitting nova V959 Mon. We find that its ejecta were shaped by the motion of the binary system: some gas was expelled rapidly along the poles as a wind from the white dwarf, while denser material drifted out along the equatorial plane, propelled by orbital motion. At the interface between the equatorial and polar regions, we observe synchrotron emission indicative of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration, thereby pinpointing the location of γ-ray production. Binary shaping of the nova ejecta and associated internal shocks are expected to be widespread among novae, explaining why many novae are γ-ray emitters.

Categories: Literature

A little knowledge

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

A little knowledge

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514139b

The significance of expertise passed on by direct contact— tacit knowledge — is moot.

Categories: Literature

A little knowledge

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

A little knowledge

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514139b

The significance of expertise passed on by direct contact— tacit knowledge — is moot.

Categories: Literature

A call to those who care about Europe’s science

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

A call to those who care about Europe’s science

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/514141a

Author: Amaya Moro-Martin

Better collaboration is a laudable goal, but that alone will not be enough to fix the damage caused by Europe’s falling investment, says Amaya Moro-Martin.

Categories: Literature

Evolution: Oldest ant lover found entombed

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Evolution: Oldest ant lover found entombed

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514142a

Insects that embed themselves in ant colonies have existed for nearly as long as their hosts, and some have evolved rapidly, probably in response to ant diversification.Joseph Parker at Columbia University and David Grimaldi from the American Museum of Natural History, both in New

Categories: Literature

Electronics: Fluid-based sensor bends and twists

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Electronics: Fluid-based sensor bends and twists

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514142b

Electronic sensors made using liquids can outperform other flexible devices that have solid components.Most sensors rely on solid metals that form junctions. To render such devices flexible, Ali Javey of the University of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues developed a way to make a

Categories: Literature

Electronics: Fluid-based sensor bends and twists

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Electronics: Fluid-based sensor bends and twists

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514142b

Electronic sensors made using liquids can outperform other flexible devices that have solid components.Most sensors rely on solid metals that form junctions. To render such devices flexible, Ali Javey of the University of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues developed a way to make a

Categories: Literature

Genomics: Hundreds of genes for height

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Genomics: Hundreds of genes for height

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514142c

One of the largest-ever genome-wide association studies has identified 697 genetic variants for human height — several hundred more than a previous, smaller study.Peter Visscher of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, and a team of hundreds of scientists analysed the combined results

Categories: Literature

Climate change: Ocean warming underestimated

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Climate change: Ocean warming underestimated

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514142d

Recent estimates of global temperature rises in the upper ocean may have been too low.Oceans absorb the majority of the heat resulting from global warming. Paul Durack of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California and his colleagues used a range of climate models

Categories: Literature

Geophysics: Mid-depth quakes are risky too

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Geophysics: Mid-depth quakes are risky too

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514143a

Earthquakes that originate at intermediate depths are an underappreciated seismic risk, according to a study of a June 2014 earthquake in the western Aleutian Islands off Alaska.The epicentre of the magnitude-7.9 quake was approximately 100 kilometres deep, making the quake the largest in this

Categories: Literature

Geophysics: Mid-depth quakes are risky too

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Geophysics: Mid-depth quakes are risky too

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514143a

Earthquakes that originate at intermediate depths are an underappreciated seismic risk, according to a study of a June 2014 earthquake in the western Aleutian Islands off Alaska.The epicentre of the magnitude-7.9 quake was approximately 100 kilometres deep, making the quake the largest in this

Categories: Literature

Neuroscience: How curiosity enhances learning

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Neuroscience: How curiosity enhances learning

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514143b

Curiosity boosts people's ability to learn and retain new information, thanks to key reward and memory centres in the brain.Matthias Gruber and his colleagues at the University of California, Davis asked volunteers to rate their level of curiosity for a series of trivia questions,

Categories: Literature

Climate science: Plant growth leads to Arctic warming

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Climate science: Plant growth leads to Arctic warming

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514143c

Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is known to boost vegetation cover at high latitudes — and this could accelerate Arctic warming year-round.Grasses and shrubs have a warming effect because plant-covered areas reflect less sunlight than barren surfaces do. Baek-Min Kim at the Korea

Categories: Literature

Microbial genetics: Gene switch helps bacteria invade

Nature - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 00:00

Microbial genetics: Gene switch helps bacteria invade

Nature 514, 7521 (2014). doi:10.1038/514143d

A bacterium that causes pneumonia and other ailments can switch between six different forms by rearranging key genes, allowing the microbe to alter its ability to infect.Streptococcus pneumoniae (pictured) lives harmlessly in the nose but can cause serious infections in some

Categories: Literature

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