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Microscopy: Single ions make sharper images

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Microscopy: Single ions make sharper images

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536008b

A microscope creates images with nanometre resolution by exposing samples to single ions.In electron and ion microscopy, increasing a sample's exposure time can improve the signal-to-noise ratio and result in clearer images, but this can damage or contaminate the sample. To avoid this, Georg

Categories: Literature

Exercise physiology: Ketones alter metabolism

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Exercise physiology: Ketones alter metabolism

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536008c

Athletes' physical endurance can be enhanced by drinking ketones — biochemical fuel normally produced during starvation.Fasting or prolonged exercise drives liver cells to make ketone bodies as a fast-acting fuel to help tissues cope with the energy deficit. To test the effect of these

Categories: Literature

Animal behaviour: Humpbacks to the rescue

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Animal behaviour: Humpbacks to the rescue

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536008d

Humpback whales come to the assistance of other species by harassing the killer whales that are attacking those animals.Robert Pitman at the Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla, California, and his colleagues reviewed reports of 115 interactions between humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae

Categories: Literature

Neuroscience: Fruit flies care about texture

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Neuroscience: Fruit flies care about texture

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536009a

Fruit flies prefer food with certain textures, thanks to specific neurons in the brain that connect to taste sensors in the tongue.Yali Zhang and Craig Montell at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and their colleagues gave fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) liquid

Categories: Literature

Immunology: Gut microbes boost antibodies

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Immunology: Gut microbes boost antibodies

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536009b

Intestinal bacteria release metabolic by-products that support antibody-producing immune cells.Gut microbes produce short-chain fatty acids as they digest dietary fibre. Chang Kim and his colleagues at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, treated cultured B cells with the fatty acids and found that this

Categories: Literature

Evolution: Long trips foster tool use

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Evolution: Long trips foster tool use

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536009c

Chimpanzees that travel farther in search of food are more likely to use tools than are their less-travelled counterparts.Thibaud Gruber and his colleagues at the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland studied wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii; pictured) in Uganda, using six

Categories: Literature

Environmental science: Humans have a hand in wildfires

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Environmental science: Humans have a hand in wildfires

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536009d

People strongly influence the likelihood of fires in forests, grasslands and other ecosystems across the United States and Canada, mostly by lowering fire risks.People can ignite fires, but can also suppress them by altering properties of the land, for example by removing natural vegetation.

Categories: Literature

Ecology: Insecticides hurt male bees too

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Ecology: Insecticides hurt male bees too

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536009e

A class of pesticides that has been linked to declining bee populations harms the reproductive capacity of male honeybees, not just that of queens as other research has shown.Neonicotinoid pesticides are currently banned by the European Union because of their effects on bees. Lars

Categories: Literature

The week in science: 29 July–4 August 2016

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

The week in science: 29 July–4 August 2016

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/536010a

Theranos debuts new blood-testing device; Google and GlaxoSmithKline team up on bioelectronics; and United States has first domestic Zika transmissions.

Categories: Literature

Legal confusion threatens to slow data science

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Legal confusion threatens to slow data science

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/536016a

Author: Simon Oxenham

Researcher who spent months chasing permission to republish online data sets urges others to read up on the law.

Categories: Literature

Scholarly Olympics: How the games have shaped research

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Scholarly Olympics: How the games have shaped research

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/536018a

Authors: Daniel Cressey, Ramin Skibba & Richard Van Noorden

A graphical guide to the impact of the Olympics on science.

Categories: Literature

Welcome to the Cyborg Olympics

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Welcome to the Cyborg Olympics

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/536020a

Author: Sara Reardon

The Cybathlon aims to help disabled people navigate the most difficult course of all: the everyday world.

Categories: Literature

Take responsibility for electronic-waste disposal

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Take responsibility for electronic-waste disposal

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536023a

Authors: Zhaohua Wang, Bin Zhang & Dabo Guan

International cooperation is needed to stop developed nations simply offloading defunct electronics on developing countries, argue Zhaohua Wang, Bin Zhang and Dabo Guan.

Categories: Literature

Economics: Singular currency

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Economics: Singular currency

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536026a

Author: Jonathan Portes

Jonathan Portes parses Joseph Stiglitz's analysis of the euro in the context of the global financial crisis.

Categories: Literature

Child development: A cognitive case for un‑parenting

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Child development: A cognitive case for un‑parenting

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536027a

Author: Josie Glausiusz

Josie Glausiusz relishes Alison Gopnik's study on how child-rearing demands the embrace of messy realities.

Categories: Literature

China: A hydrological history

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

China: A hydrological history

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536028a

Author: Andrea Janku

Andrea Janku enjoys a study of the nation-building role of China's great rivers, the Yellow and the Yangtze.

Categories: Literature

China: Change tack to boost basic research

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

China: Change tack to boost basic research

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536030a

Authors: Raphael K. Didham & Chao-Dong Zhu

We agree that China must invest more in basic research, but fear that simply casting more seeds on infertile ground will not yield the anticipated fruit of innovation (W.YangNature534, 467–469; 10.1038/534467a2016). More bottom-up initiatives for

Categories: Literature

China: Standardize R&D costing

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

China: Standardize R&D costing

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536030b

Authors: Yutao Sun & Cong Cao

Figures for China's basic-research spending should not be taken at face value (see W.YangNature534, 467–469; 10.1038/534467a2016). Before comparing gross expenditure on research and development (R&D) with that in developed countries, China's official statistics first need bringing

Categories: Literature

Health research: Mentoring female scientists in Africa

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Health research: Mentoring female scientists in Africa

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536030c

Authors: Rose G. F. Leke & S. Kwedi Nolna

As founding members of the Higher Institute for Growth in Health Research (HIGHER) for Women in Cameroon, our mission has been to help young women to enter and sustain careers in biomedical science through a mentoring programme (www.higherwomencam.org).Mentored female researchers spend more

Categories: Literature

Endocrine disruptors: Refereed science to guide action on EDCs

Nature - Wed, 08/03/2016 - 00:00

Endocrine disruptors: Refereed science to guide action on EDCs

Nature 536, 7614 (2016). doi:10.1038/536030d

Author: Leonardo Trasande

In a non-peer-reviewed venue (Nature535, 355; 10.1038/535355c2016), Daniel Dietrich et al. put forward apparently unsubstantiated arguments that in effect dismiss thousands of peer-reviewed academic studies and rigorous evaluations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by independent scientists and organizations such

Categories: Literature

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