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Q&A: Barry Marshall

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Q&A: Barry Marshall

Nature. doi:10.1038/514S6a

Author: Meghan Azad

Laureate Barry Marshall, professor of clinical microbiology at the University of Western Australia in Perth, tells Meghan Azad why he risked his health to prove his theory about the link between stomach ulcers and bacteria. He shared the 2005 Nobel prize with Robin Warren for discovering the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori and for proving that it is this microorganism, not stress, that causes most peptic ulcers.

Categories: Literature

Q&A: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Q&A: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

Nature. doi:10.1038/514S8a

Author: Iria Gomez-Touriño

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier were jointly awarded the 2008 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of HIV in 1983. Three decades on, Barré-Sinoussi is director of the Retroviral Infections unit at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Here, she tells Iria Gomez-Touriño about the latest strategies to combat the virus.

Categories: Literature

Q&A: Michael Bishop

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Q&A: Michael Bishop

Nature. doi:10.1038/514S9a

Author: Kipp Weiskopf

Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus proved that genetic changes could drive the formation of tumours. They were awarded the 1989 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the origin of retroviral oncogenes. Bishop — now director of the GW Hooper Foundation at the University of California, San Francisco — tells Kipp Weiskopf about 40 years in cancer research.

Categories: Literature

Q&A: Torsten Wiesel

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Q&A: Torsten Wiesel

Nature. doi:10.1038/514S11a

Author: Stefano Sandrone

Torsten Wiesel is president emeritus of Rockefeller University in New York City. He shared half of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with David Hubel for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. He tells Stefano Sandrone about his greatest scientific achievement and his vision of the future.

Categories: Literature

Q&A: Brian Kobilka

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Q&A: Brian Kobilka

Nature. doi:10.1038/514S12a

Author: Haya Jamal Azouz

Brian Kobilka shared the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert Lefkowitz for their studies of G protein-coupled receptors. He is professor of molecular and cellular physiology at the Stanford University School of Medicine in California. Haya Jamal Azouz asks Kobilka what it takes to spend 30 years answering a single research question.

Categories: Literature

Gerontology: Will you still need me, will you still feed me?

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Gerontology: Will you still need me, will you still feed me?

Nature. doi:10.1038/514S14a

Author: Lorna Stewart

As the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings turn 64, laureates and young researchers discuss growing old — and whether exercise and stress reduction can slow the ageing process.

Categories: Literature

Cancer: Staying together on the road to metastasis

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Cancer: Staying together on the road to metastasis

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/514309a

Authors: Alessia Bottos & Nancy E. Hynes

Most deaths from breast cancer occur when the primary tumour spreads to secondary sites. It now emerges that clusters of tumour cells that enter the bloodstream form metastases more often than single circulating tumour cells.

Categories: Literature

Astrophysics: How tiny galaxies form stars

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Astrophysics: How tiny galaxies form stars

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/514310a

Authors: Bruce Elmegreen

Observations of two faint galaxies with a low abundance of elements heavier than helium show that the galaxies have an efficiency of star formation less than one-tenth of that of the Milky Way and similar galaxies. See Letter p.335

Categories: Literature

50 & 100 Years Ago

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

50 & 100 Years Ago

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/514313b

50 Years AgoIn general, the 'epidemic' process can be characterized as one of transition from one state (susceptible) to another (infective) where the transition is caused by exposure to some phenomenon (infectious material) ... People are susceptible to certain ideas and resistant to others.

Categories: Literature

Solid-state physics: A historic experiment redesigned

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Solid-state physics: A historic experiment redesigned

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/514313a

Authors: Sven Höfling & Alexey Kavokin

Large quasiparticles known as Rydberg excitons have been detected in a natural crystal of copper oxide. The result may find use in applications such as single-photon logic devices. See Letter p.343

Categories: Literature

Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13820

Authors: Yong Shi, Lee Armus, George Helou, Sabrina Stierwalt, Yu Gao, Junzhi Wang, Zhi-Yu Zhang & Qiusheng Gu

The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no ‘metals’ (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.

Categories: Literature

Giant Rydberg excitons in the copper oxide Cu2O

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Giant Rydberg excitons in the copper oxide Cu2O

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13832

Authors: T. Kazimierczuk, D. Fröhlich, S. Scheel, H. Stolz & M. Bayer

A highly excited atom having an electron that has moved into a level with large principal quantum number is a hydrogen-like object, termed a Rydberg atom. The giant size of Rydberg atoms leads to huge interaction effects. Monitoring these interactions has provided insights into atomic and molecular physics on the single-quantum level. Excitons—the fundamental optical excitations in semiconductors, consisting of an electron and a positively charged hole—are the condensed-matter analogues of hydrogen. Highly excited excitons with extensions similar to those of Rydberg atoms are of interest because they can be placed and moved in a crystal with high precision using microscopic energy potential landscapes. The interaction of such Rydberg excitons may allow the formation of ordered exciton phases or the sensing of elementary excitations in their surroundings on a quantum level. Here we demonstrate the existence of Rydberg excitons in the copper oxide Cu2O, with principal quantum numbers as large as n = 25. These states have giant wavefunction extensions (that is, the average distance between the electron and the hole) of more than two micrometres, compared to about a nanometre for the ground state. The strong dipole–dipole interaction between such excitons is indicated by a blockade effect in which the presence of one exciton prevents the excitation of another in its vicinity.

Categories: Literature

Helium and lead isotopes reveal the geochemical geometry of the Samoan plume

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Helium and lead isotopes reveal the geochemical geometry of the Samoan plume

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13794

Authors: M. G. Jackson, S. R. Hart, J. G. Konter, M. D. Kurz, J. Blusztajn & K. A. Farley

Hotspot lavas erupted at ocean islands exhibit tremendous isotopic variability, indicating that there are numerous mantle components hosted in upwelling mantle plumes that generate volcanism at hotspots like Hawaii and Samoa. However, it is not known how the surface expression of the various geochemical components observed in hotspot volcanoes relates to their spatial distribution within the plume. Here we present a relationship between He and Pb isotopes in Samoan lavas that places severe constraints on the distribution of geochemical species within the plume. The Pb-isotopic compositions of the Samoan lavas reveal several distinct geochemical groups, each corresponding to a different geographic lineament of volcanoes. Each group has a signature associated with one of four mantle endmembers with low 3He/4He: EMII (enriched mantle 2), EMI (enriched mantle 1), HIMU (high µ = 238U/204Pb) and DM (depleted mantle). Critically, these four geochemical groups trend towards a common region of Pb-isotopic space with high 3He/4He. This observation is consistent with several low-3He/4He components in the plume mixing with a common high-3He/4He component, but not mixing much with each other. The mixing relationships inferred from the new He and Pb isotopic data provide the clearest picture yet of the geochemical geometry of a mantle plume, and are best explained by a high-3He/4He plume matrix that hosts, and mixes with, several distinct low-3He/4He components.

Categories: Literature

Corrigendum: A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Corrigendum: A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13841

Authors: Brent C. Christner, John C. Priscu, Amanda M. Achberger, Carlo Barbante, Sasha P. Carter, Knut Christianson, Alexander B. Michaud, Jill A. Mikucki, Andrew C. Mitchell, Mark L. Skidmore & Trista J. Vick-Majors

Nature512, 310–313 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13667During the preparation of the manuscript, author Huw Horgan was inadvertently excluded from the list of authors for the WISSARD Science Team. The HTML and PDF versions of this Letter have been corrected.

Categories: Literature

Corrigendum: Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Corrigendum: Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13842

Authors: Amy E. Zanne, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell, Jonathan M. Eastman, Stephen A. Smith, Richard G. FitzJohn, Daniel J. McGlinn, Brian C. O’Meara, Angela T. Moles, Peter B. Reich, Dana L. Royer, Douglas E. Soltis, Peter F. Stevens, Mark Westoby, Ian J. Wright, Lonnie Aarssen, Robert I. Bertin, Andre Calaminus, Rafaël Govaerts, Frank Hemmings, Michelle R. Leishman, Jacek Oleksyn, Pamela S. Soltis, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman & Jeremy M. Beaulieu

Nature506, 89–92 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature12872In this Letter, Figs 2 and 3 contained several minor errors, which have now been corrected. In Fig. 2c, we did not include the possible pathway from deciduous and freezing unexposed to evergreen and

Categories: Literature

Corrigendum: Connectomic reconstruction of the inner plexiform layer in the mouse retina.

Nature - Wed, 10/15/2014 - 00:00

Corrigendum: Connectomic reconstruction of the inner plexiform layer in the mouse retina.

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13877

Authors: Moritz Helmstaedter, Kevin L. Briggman, Srinivas C. Turaga, Viren Jain, H. Sebastian Seung & Winfried Denk

Nature500, 168–174 (2013); doi:10.1038/nature12346It has been brought to our attention that Supplementary Data 7, reporting the correspondence of our cell type definitions to those reported in the literature, contained sorting errors in the first two columns of

Categories: Literature

Researchers Explain Puzzling Stability of Some Himalayan Glaciers

Yale Environment 360 - Tue, 10/14/2014 - 11:18

Unlike nearly all other high-altitude glaciers across the globe, glaciers in the Karakoram mountain chain, part Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram range of the Himalayas, are not melting and are even expanding in some areas. This so-called “Karakoram anomaly” has puzzled scientists for years, but now a team of researchers has offered an explanation: While rain from warm summer monsoons tends to melt mountain glaciers in other parts of the Himalayas and the nearby Tibetan Plateau, the location and height of mountains in the Karakoram chain, which runs along the borders of China, India, and Pakistan, protect the area from this seasonal precipitation. Instead, the mountain chain receives most of its precipitation in the form of winter snowfall, according to findings published in Nature Geoscience. The study suggests that the Karakoram glaciers are likely to persist until 2100, but not long after, if global warming continues at its current pace.

Categories: Environmental News

Dust to dust

Nature - Tue, 10/14/2014 - 00:00

Dust to dust

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). doi:10.1038/514273b

What lessons can be learned from the presentation of the gravitational-waves story?

Categories: Literature

Stem-cell success poses immunity challenge for diabetes

Nature - Tue, 10/14/2014 - 00:00

Stem-cell success poses immunity challenge for diabetes

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/514281a

Author: Heidi Ledford

Researchers must now work out how to protect cell transplants from the immune systems of people with type 1 diabetes.

Categories: Literature

Giant gene banks take on disease

Nature - Tue, 10/14/2014 - 00:00

Giant gene banks take on disease

Nature 514, 7522 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/514282a

Author: Erika Check Hayden

Researchers bring together troves of DNA sequences in the hope of teasing out links between traits and genetic variants.

Categories: Literature

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