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Joiner et al. reply

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Joiner et al. reply

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13627

Authors: Mei-ling A. Joiner, Olha M. Koval, Jingdong Li, B. Julie He, Chantal Allamargot, Zhan Gao, Elizabeth D. Luczak, Duane D. Hall, Brian D. Fink, Biyi Chen, Jinying Yang, Steven A. Moore, Thomas D. Scholz, Stefan Strack, Peter J. Mohler, William I. Sivitz, Long-Sheng Song & Mark E. Anderson

Replying to F. Fieni et al.Nature513, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13626 (2014)In our Letter identifying mitochondrial CaMKII as a crucial component of a Ca2+-dependent process of heart disease, we used multiple methods to show that CaMKII modulates mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis, as outlined below. First, we carried out electrophysiology of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) current in mitoplasts. In our report we did not claim to measure capacitance of the mitoplast separately from the total capacitance of the mitoplast and pipette. Although we concede that the approach of Fieni et al. is preferable, we found that even after removing any correction for capacitance, dialysis with constitutively active CaMKII monomers increased MCU current whereas dialysis with catalytically dead CaMKII monomers did not.

Categories: Literature

Clarification

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Clarification

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/513472b

The graphic in the News Feature ‘The fusion upstarts’ (Nature511, 398–400; 2014) omitted to note that the deuterium–deuterium reaction has a 50% chance of producing tritium and a proton.

Categories: Literature

Earth science: A fresh look at river flow

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Earth science: A fresh look at river flow

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/513490a

Authors: Nicole M. Gasparini

A detailed survey of the Fraser River in Canada challenges preconceptions about how river water flows. The results call for a re-evaluation of how waterways carve through bedrock to form canyons. See Letter p.534

Categories: Literature

Biodiversity: Leaping lizards

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Biodiversity: Leaping lizards

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/513492a

Author: Patrick Goymer

Loss of biodiversity is a hallmark of the human-dominated era, but our influence can also alter the processes that generate biodiversity. On page 543 of this issue, Helmus et al. study human-assisted movement of lizards around Caribbean islands, and show that a major

Categories: Literature

Extrasolar planets: Window on a watery world

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Extrasolar planets: Window on a watery world

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/513493a

Authors: Eliza M. R. Kempton

The first definitive signs of water have been seen in the atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet, paving the way towards the search for water on smaller Earth-like planets. See Letter p.526

Categories: Literature

50 & 100 Years Ago

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

50 & 100 Years Ago

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/513497a

50 Years AgoThe capacity exhibited by all organisms to develop tolerance for new environmental conditions has been an important factor in the continuing existence of life on Earth. It has also had adverse effects on some creatures. To man, one of the most disturbing

Categories: Literature

Network biology: A compass for stem-cell differentiation

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Network biology: A compass for stem-cell differentiation

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/513498a

Authors: Franz-Josef Müller & Jeanne F. Loring

The development of CellNet — network-biology software that determines how cell types generated in vitro relate to their naturally occurring counterparts — could improve our ability to produce desirable cells in culture.

Categories: Literature

Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13785

Authors: Jonathan Fraine, Drake Deming, Bjorn Benneke, Heather Knutson, Andrés Jordán, Néstor Espinoza, Nikku Madhusudhan, Ashlee Wilkins & Kamen Todorov

Transmission spectroscopy has so far detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain atmospheres with high mean molecular weights (little hydrogen), opaque clouds or scattering hazes, reducing our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b (which has a radius about four times that of Earth) from the optical wavelength range to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts per million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar, and sufficiently rich in hydrogen to have a large scale height (over which the atmospheric pressure varies by a factor of e). The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere in which the abundance of heavy elements is no greater than about 700 times the solar value. This is in good agreement with the core-accretion theory of planet formation, in which a gas giant planet acquires its atmosphere by accreting hydrogen-rich gas directly from the protoplanetary nebula onto a large rocky or icy core.

Categories: Literature

Flow in bedrock canyons

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Flow in bedrock canyons

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13779

Authors: Jeremy G. Venditti, Colin D. Rennie, James Bomhof, Ryan W. Bradley, Malcolm Little & Michael Church

Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

Categories: Literature

Island biogeography of the Anthropocene

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Island biogeography of the Anthropocene

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13739

Authors: Matthew R. Helmus, D. Luke Mahler & Jonathan B. Losos

For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species–area and negative species–isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species–area relationship has strengthened while the species–isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene—an epoch proposed for the present time interval—island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

Categories: Literature

Corrigendum: Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Corrigendum: Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13675

Authors: Jing Fan, Jiangbin Ye, Jurre J. Kamphorst, Tomer Shlomi, Craig B. Thompson & Joshua D. Rabinowitz

Nature510, 298–302 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13236In the interests of transparency, we wish to amend the ‘Competing financial interests’ section of our Letter to read: “J.D.R. is the only author with a competing financial interest with respect to the current

Categories: Literature

Corrigendum: Elephant shark genome provides unique insights into gnathostome evolution

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Corrigendum: Elephant shark genome provides unique insights into gnathostome evolution

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13699

Authors: Byrappa Venkatesh, Alison P. Lee, Vydianathan Ravi, Ashish K. Maurya, Michelle M. Lian, Jeremy B. Swann, Yuko Ohta, Martin F. Flajnik, Yoichi Sutoh, Masanori Kasahara, Shawn Hoon, Vamshidhar Gangu, Scott W. Roy, Manuel Irimia, Vladimir Korzh, Igor Kondrychyn, Zhi Wei Lim, Boon-Hui Tay, Sumanty Tohari, Kiat Whye Kong, Shufen Ho, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Javier Quilez, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Brian J. Raney, Philip W. Ingham, Alice Tay, LaDeana W. Hillier, Patrick Minx, Thomas Boehm, Richard K. Wilson, Sydney Brenner & Wesley C. Warren

Nature505, 174–179 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature12826The ranges of accession numbers JW861113–JW881738 and KA353634–KA353668 (20,661 in total) cited in this Article include 3,630 sequences that were unrelated and hence removed from the NCBI GenBank database before the analysis of the

Categories: Literature

Corrigendum: Coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis by a specific vessel subtype in bone

Nature - Wed, 09/24/2014 - 00:00

Corrigendum: Coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis by a specific vessel subtype in bone

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13720

Authors: Anjali P. Kusumbe, Saravana K. Ramasamy & Ralf H. Adams

Nature507, 323–328 (2014); doi:10.1038/nature13145In this Article, the labels ‘Metaphysis’ and ‘Diaphysis’ were inadvertently swapped in Extended Data Fig 3d. In the Methods Summary on page 327 and in the third paragraph of the Methods it should state

Categories: Literature

Food Security Issues Often Neglected After Extreme Weather Events

Yale Environment 360 - Tue, 09/23/2014 - 11:49

Extreme weather events — the sort likely to arise with increasing frequency as the planet warms — took a heavy toll on Russia and East Africa in 2010 and 2011, in large part because governments and authorities were ill-equipped to address resulting food shortages and other fallout, according to researchers at the University of Oxford. Russia experienced a heat wave that led to food hoarding and price-fixing of staple crops by speculators, according to the report, which was commissioned by Oxfam. A drought in East Africa in 2010 through 2011 was tied to an uptick in armed conflicts in the region, which interrupted international and domestic aid for six months. Crop prices reached record levels in several markets, including wheat in Ethiopia, maize in Kenya, and red sorghum grain in Somalia, the report notes. Investing in additional health facilities, establishing pre-positioned food supplies, and other tactics aimed at mitigating the effects of future heat waves, droughts, and floods, could help to blunt the effects of climate change on the poorest and most vulnerable populations, the researchers say.

Categories: Environmental News

Oil Companies Quietly Prepare For a Future of Carbon Pricing

Yale Environment 360 - Tue, 09/23/2014 - 07:31

The major oil companies in the U.S. have not had to pay a price for the contribution their products make to climate change. But internal accounting by the companies, along with a host of other signs, suggest that may soon change — though the implications of a price on carbon are far from clear. BY MARK SCHAPIRO AND JASON SCORSE

Categories: Environmental News

First response, revisited

Nature - Tue, 09/23/2014 - 00:00

First response, revisited

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). doi:10.1038/513459a

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has starkly exposed major gaps in plans to tackle emerging infectious diseases. Lessons must be learned.

Categories: Literature

Chinese science gets mass transformation

Nature - Tue, 09/23/2014 - 00:00

Chinese science gets mass transformation

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/513468a

Author: David Cyranoski

Teamwork at centre of Chinese Academy of Sciences reform.

Categories: Literature

Global Ebola response kicks into gear at last

Nature - Tue, 09/23/2014 - 00:00

Global Ebola response kicks into gear at last

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/513469a

Author: Declan Butler

US and UN mobilizations are welcome but overdue.

Categories: Literature

US vows to combat antibiotic resistance

Nature - Tue, 09/23/2014 - 00:00

US vows to combat antibiotic resistance

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/513471a

Author: Sara Reardon

Strategy lauded, but some fear it is lax on agricultural use.

Categories: Literature

Drug-safety pilot makes the grade

Nature - Tue, 09/23/2014 - 00:00

Drug-safety pilot makes the grade

Nature 513, 7519 (2014). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/513472a

Author: Heidi Ledford

FDA will continue to monitor safety from health records.

Categories: Literature

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