You are hereFeed aggregator

Feed aggregator


Chinese AI company plans to mine health data faster than rivals

Nature - Tue, 01/10/2017 - 01:00

Chinese AI company plans to mine health data faster than rivals

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/541141a

Author: David Cyranoski

iCarbonX believes its cutting-edge partners and generous funding give it the upper hand.

Categories: Literature

Legendary radio telescope hangs in the balance

Nature - Tue, 01/10/2017 - 01:00

Legendary radio telescope hangs in the balance

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/541143a

Author: Alexandra Witze

US National Science Foundation looks to slash funding for Puerto Rico’s Arecibo Observatory.

Categories: Literature

Compare voting systems to improve them

Nature - Tue, 01/10/2017 - 01:00

Compare voting systems to improve them

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/541151a

Authors: Guruprasad Madhavan, Charles Phelps & Rino Rappuoli

Research is needed on how groups make choices in real situations, write Guruprasad Madhavan, Charles Phelps and Rino Rappuoli.

Categories: Literature

Corrections

Nature - Tue, 01/10/2017 - 01:00

Corrections

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/541147a

The News story ‘Major rethink for outbreak response’ (Nature 540, 494–495; 2016) stated that a funding shortfall pertained to EDCARN. But it is the overarching WHO health-emergencies programme that is currently underfunded. The News Feature ‘What’s killing the world’s shorebirds?’ (Nature 541,

Categories: Literature

U.S. Likely to Become Exporter Of Energy by 2026, New Report Says

Yale Environment 360 - Fri, 01/06/2017 - 10:48

The U.S. could become a major exporter of energy by 2026, if not sooner, as natural gas production increases and electricity demand

Solar panels in New Mexico. flattens in the coming years, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) latest Annual Outlook released this week. The report also projects that renewables will grow faster than any other power source over the next three decades. But while electricity-related CO2 emissions are expected to fall as natural gas, wind, and solar increasingly power the grid, industrial and transportation emissions will likely increase. As a result, the EIA said, the country will not significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and meet its pledges under the Paris Climate Agreement. Energy-related CO2 emissions fell an average 1.4 percent annually from 2005 to 2016. But according to the EIA report, that annual decline will likely average only 0.2 percent between 2016 and 2040.

Categories: Environmental News

Gene-edited cows, rogue clinics, speedier drug approvals: the challenges facing Trump's FDA chief

Nature - Fri, 01/06/2017 - 01:00

Gene-edited cows, rogue clinics, speedier drug approvals: the challenges facing Trump's FDA chief

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2017.21256

Author: Heidi Ledford

The agency's next leader will have an opportunity to reshape its approach to regulation.

Categories: Literature

Natural Disasters Caused $55 Billion in Damage in North America Last Year

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 01/05/2017 - 11:29

North America was hit by 160 natural disasters in 2016, more than any other year since records began in 1980, according to an analysis by the global

A flooded Louisiana home in August 2016. reinsurance firm Munich Re. The disasters — which included floods, wildfires, droughts, heat waves, and coastal storms — caused an estimated $55 billion in damage. Only 54 percent of those losses were insured, Munich Re said. Two of the world’s five most expensive natural catastrophes last year happened in North America — Hurricane Matthew in late September and major flooding in Louisiana in August. The U.S. alone experienced 19 major flood events in 2016, its highest number ever. Munich Re classifies a natural disaster as any event that caused at least $3 million in damage. “A look at the weather-related catastrophes of 2016 shows the potential effects of unchecked climate change,” Peter Höppe, head of Munich Re’s Geo Risks Research Unit, said.

Categories: Environmental News

Interview: In Costa Rica, Momentum Builds for a Clean-Energy Economy

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 01/05/2017 - 07:44

Costa Rica has an impressive track record when it comes to renewable energy. The country, famous for its ecotourism industry, produces almost all of its electricity

Monica Araya from renewable sources. But Monica Araya wants her nation to go even greener. Araya, the founder and director of Costa Rica Limpia — a citizen’s group that promotes renewable energy — is now pushing for the widespread adoption of electric vehicles in Costa Rica, all part of a vision of making her country one of the world’s first carbon-neutral nations. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Araya describes how the fledgling effort to decarbonize Costa Rica’s transportation sector has encountered government resistance, and she urges clean-energy advocates worldwide to intensify their efforts, despite the pro-fossil fuel stance of the incoming Trump administration. “If the U.S. doesn't want to be part of the game, the game is going to continue,” says Araya. “Clean energy's going to continue. Electric mobility is going to continue... Costa Rica's going to move forward.”
Read the interview.

Categories: Environmental News

New Look at Rivers Reveals The Toll of Human Activity

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 07:39

A recent outbreak of a deadly fish parasite on the Yellowstone River may have seemed unremarkable. But a new wave of research shows the episode was likely linked to the cumulative impact of human activities that essentially weakened the Yellowstone’s "immune system." BY JIM ROBBINS

Categories: Environmental News

Scientists Confirm Once Again That Global Warming Hiatus Never Happened

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 02:01

Scientists have confirmed that global ocean temperatures have continued to rise over the past few decades — once again debunking

Sea surface temperature over the past decade. the notion of a “hiatus” in global land and sea surface warming in the first 15 years of the 21st century. The new research, published this week in the journal Science Advances, was conducted by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley and the non-profit research institute Berkeley Earth. The study supports an earlier finding by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that buoy-based sensors report slightly cooler ocean temperatures than historical ship-based systems — which made it appear as though temperature increases had slowed as the bulk of data collection shifted from ships to the new technology. Using measurements from floating buoys, ocean-based observation stations, and satellites over the past two decades, the new study confirmed that global sea surface temperatures have risen 0.12 degrees C per decade over the last 19 years, nearly double the previous estimate of 0.07 degrees C per decade.

Categories: Environmental News

Google reveals secret test of AI bot to beat top Go players

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Google reveals secret test of AI bot to beat top Go players

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2017.21253

Author: Elizabeth Gibney

Updated version of DeepMind's AlphaGo program behind mystery online competitor.

Categories: Literature

Biological techniques: Stomach growth in a dish

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Biological techniques: Stomach growth in a dish

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature21110

Authors: José B. Sáenz & Jason C. Mills

A protocol has been developed to grow structures that resemble the main part of the stomach in vitro from human embryonic stem cells — an advance that provides insights into stomach development. See Article p.182

Categories: Literature

Cancer genomics: Spot the difference

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Cancer genomics: Spot the difference

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature21112

Authors: Noah D. Peyser & Jennifer R. Grandis

A molecular analysis of human oesophageal cancers reveals abnormalities that might be targetable by existing drugs, and indicates that the current stratification of these tumours into subtypes is incomplete. See Article p.169

Categories: Literature

Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature20805

Authors:

Oesophageal cancers are prominent worldwide; however, there are few targeted therapies and survival rates for these cancers remain dismal. Here we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of 164 carcinomas of the oesophagus derived from Western and Eastern populations. Beyond known histopathological and epidemiologic distinctions, molecular

Categories: Literature

Wnt/β-catenin promotes gastric fundus specification in mice and humans

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Wnt/β-catenin promotes gastric fundus specification in mice and humans

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature21021

Authors: Kyle W. McCracken, Eitaro Aihara, Baptiste Martin, Calyn M. Crawford, Taylor Broda, Julie Treguier, Xinghao Zhang, John M. Shannon, Marshall H. Montrose & James M. Wells

Despite the global prevalence of gastric disease, there are few adequate models in which to study the fundus epithelium of the human stomach. We differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into gastric organoids containing fundic epithelium by first identifying and then recapitulating key events in

Categories: Literature

Penitentes as the origin of the bladed terrain of Tartarus Dorsa on Pluto

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Penitentes as the origin of the bladed terrain of Tartarus Dorsa on Pluto

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature20779

Authors: John E. Moores, Christina L. Smith, Anthony D. Toigo & Scott D. Guzewich

Penitentes are snow and ice features formed by erosion that, on Earth, are characterized by bowl-shaped depressions several tens of centimetres across, whose edges grade into spires up to several metres tall. Penitentes have been suggested as an explanation for anomalous radar data on Europa, but until now no penitentes have been identified conclusively on planetary bodies other than Earth. Regular ridges with spacings of 3,000 to 5,000 metres and depths of about 500 metres with morphologies that resemble penitentes have been observed by the New Horizons spacecraft in the Tartarus Dorsa region of Pluto (220°–250° E, 0°–20° N). Here we report simulations, based upon a recent model representing conditions on Pluto, in which deepening penitentes reproduce both the tri-modal (north–south, east–west and northeast–southwest) orientation and the spacing of the ridges of this bladed terrain. At present, these penitentes deepen by approximately one centimetre per orbital cycle and grow only during periods of relatively high atmospheric pressure, suggesting a formation timescale of several tens of millions of years, consistent with crater ages. This timescale implies that the penitentes formed from initial topographic variations of no more than a few tens of metres, consistent with Pluto’s youngest terrains.

Categories: Literature

A symmoriiform chondrichthyan braincase and the origin of chimaeroid fishes

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

A symmoriiform chondrichthyan braincase and the origin of chimaeroid fishes

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature20806

Authors: Michael I. Coates, Robert W. Gess, John A. Finarelli, Katharine E. Criswell & Kristen Tietjen

Chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali) are one of the four principal divisions of modern gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Despite only 47 described living species, chimaeroids are the focus of resurgent interest as potential archives of genomic data and for the unique perspective they provide on chondrichthyan and gnathostome ancestral conditions. Chimaeroids are also noteworthy for their highly derived body plan. However, like other living groups with distinctive anatomies, fossils have been of limited use in unravelling their evolutionary origin, as the earliest recognized examples already exhibit many of the specializations present in modern forms. Here we report the results of a computed tomography analysis of Dwykaselachus, an enigmatic chondrichthyan braincase from the ~280 million year old Karoo sediments of South Africa. Externally, the braincase is that of a symmoriid shark and is by far the most complete uncrushed example yet discovered. Internally, the morphology exhibits otherwise characteristically chimaeroid specializations, including the otic labyrinth arrangement and the brain space configuration relative to exceptionally large orbits. These results have important implications for our view of modern chondrichthyan origins, add robust structure to the phylogeny of early crown group gnathostomes, reveal preconditions that suggest an initial morpho-functional basis for the derived chimaeroid cranium, and shed new light on the chondrichthyan response to the extinction at the end of the Devonian period.

Categories: Literature

Structural variation in amyloid-β fibrils from Alzheimer's disease clinical subtypes

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Structural variation in amyloid-β fibrils from Alzheimer's disease clinical subtypes

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature20814

Authors: Wei Qiang, Wai-Ming Yau, Jun-Xia Lu, John Collinge & Robert Tycko

Aggregation of amyloid-β peptides into fibrils or other self-assembled states is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Fibrils formed in vitro by 40- and 42-residue amyloid-β peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42) are polymorphic, with variations in molecular structure that depend on fibril growth conditions. Recent experiments suggest that variations in amyloid-β fibril structure in vivo may correlate with variations in Alzheimer’s disease phenotype, in analogy to distinct prion strains that are associated with different clinical and pathological phenotypes. Here we investigate correlations between structural variation and Alzheimer’s disease phenotype using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) measurements on Aβ40 and Aβ42 fibrils prepared by seeded growth from extracts of Alzheimer’s disease brain cortex. We compared two atypical Alzheimer’s disease clinical subtypes—the rapidly progressive form (r-AD) and the posterior cortical atrophy variant (PCA-AD)—with a typical prolonged-duration form (t-AD). On the basis of ssNMR data from 37 cortical tissue samples from 18 individuals, we find that a single Aβ40 fibril structure is most abundant in samples from patients with t-AD and PCA-AD, whereas Aβ40 fibrils from r-AD samples exhibit a significantly greater proportion of additional structures. Data for Aβ42 fibrils indicate structural heterogeneity in most samples from all patient categories, with at least two prevalent structures. These results demonstrate the existence of a specific predominant Aβ40 fibril structure in t-AD and PCA-AD, suggest that r-AD may relate to additional fibril structures and indicate that there is a qualitative difference between Aβ40 and Aβ42 aggregates in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

Categories: Literature

Genome-wide in vivo screen identifies novel host regulators of metastatic colonization

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Genome-wide in vivo screen identifies novel host regulators of metastatic colonization

Nature 541, 7636 (2017). doi:10.1038/nature20792

Authors: Louise van der Weyden, Mark J. Arends, Andrew D. Campbell, Tobias Bald, Hannah Wardle-Jones, Nicola Griggs, Martin Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Thomas Tüting, Owen J. Sansom, Natasha A. Karp, Simon Clare, Diane Gleeson, Edward Ryder, Antonella Galli, Elizabeth Tuck, Emma L. Cambridge, Thierry Voet, Iain C. Macaulay, Kim Wong, Sarah Spiegel, Anneliese O. Speak & David J. Adams

Metastasis is the leading cause of death for cancer patients. This multi-stage process requires tumour cells to survive in the circulation, extravasate at distant sites, then proliferate; it involves contributions from both the tumour cell and tumour microenvironment (‘host’, which includes stromal cells and the immune system). Studies suggest the early steps of the metastatic process are relatively efficient, with the post-extravasation regulation of tumour growth (‘colonization’) being critical in determining metastatic outcome. Here we show the results of screening 810 mutant mouse lines using an in vivo assay to identify microenvironmental regulators of metastatic colonization. We identify 23 genes that, when disrupted in mouse, modify the ability of tumour cells to establish metastatic foci, with 19 of these genes not previously demonstrated to play a role in host control of metastasis. The largest reduction in pulmonary metastasis was observed in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter spinster homologue 2 (Spns2)-deficient mice. We demonstrate a novel outcome of S1P-mediated regulation of lymphocyte trafficking, whereby deletion of Spns2, either globally or in a lymphatic endothelial-specific manner, creates a circulating lymphopenia and a higher percentage of effector T cells and natural killer (NK) cells present in the lung. This allows for potent tumour cell killing, and an overall decreased metastatic burden.

Categories: Literature

Why researchers should resolve to engage in 2017

Nature - Wed, 01/04/2017 - 01:00

Why researchers should resolve to engage in 2017

Nature 541, 7635 (2017). doi:10.1038/541005a

Debates over climate change and genome editing present the need for researchers to venture beyond their comfort zones to engage with citizens — and they should receive credit for doing so.

Categories: Literature

Secondary Links