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How to Restore an Urban River? Los Angeles Looks to Find Out

Yale Environment 360 - Tue, 07/19/2016 - 07:39

Officials are moving ahead with a major revitalization of the Los Angeles River – removing miles of concrete along its banks and re-greening areas now covered with pavement. But the project raises an intriguing question: Just how much of an urban river can be returned to nature? BY JIM ROBBINS

Categories: Environmental News

Gotta name them all: how Pokémon can transform taxonomy

Nature - Tue, 07/19/2016 - 00:00

Gotta name them all: how Pokémon can transform taxonomy

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). doi:10.1038/535323b

Scientists are urging Pokémon Go fanatics to keep an eye out for new species.

Categories: Literature

Cell biologists should specialize, not hybridize

Nature - Tue, 07/19/2016 - 00:00

Cell biologists should specialize, not hybridize

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/535325a

Author: Assaf Zaritsky

Dry cell biologists, who bridge computer science and cell biology, should have a pivotal role in driving effective team science, says Assaf Zaritsky.

Categories: Literature

Study role of climate change in extreme threats to water quality

Nature - Tue, 07/19/2016 - 00:00

Study role of climate change in extreme threats to water quality

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). doi:10.1038/535349a

Author: Anna M. Michalak

Record-breaking harmful algal blooms and other severe impacts are becoming more frequent. We need to understand why, says Anna M. Michalak.

Categories: Literature

Correction

Nature - Tue, 07/19/2016 - 00:00

Correction

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/535337a

The article ‘Interference puts satellite data at risk’ (Nature535, 208–209; 2016) wrongly stated that William Mahoney would lead a panel on spectrum-sharing at an American Meteorological Society meeting later this month. Jonathan Porter is the panel chairman. The story also did

Categories: Literature

Correction

Nature - Tue, 07/19/2016 - 00:00

Correction

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/535350a

The Comment 'No wild east' (D.Sipp and D.PeiNature534, 465–467; 2016 ) incorrectly cited (in ref. 4) and referred to the 2001 Chinese national guidelines on assisted reproduction when discussing the implantation of modified human

Categories: Literature

Following El Nino, Amazon At Risk of Intense Wildfire Season

Yale Environment 360 - Mon, 07/18/2016 - 09:55

As a result of the recent El Nino, the Amazon rainforest is the driest it has been at the start of a dry season since 2002 — setting “the stage for extreme fire risk in 2016” in the region,

The Amazon rainforest. NASA warned in a new fire forecast for South America. The risk for wildfire this year now exceeds the risk in 2005 and 2010, years when wildfires burned large swaths of the forest, the scientists found. Terrestrial water storage, or soil moisture, is also lower than previous years, NASA said. “When trees have less moisture to draw upon at the beginning of the dry season, they become more vulnerable to fire and evaporate less water into the atmosphere,” said UC-Irvine scientist Jim Randerson, who helped create the forecast. “This puts millions of trees under stress and lowers humidity across the region, allowing fires to grow bigger than they normally would.”

Categories: Environmental News

Older men and young women drive South African HIV epidemic

Nature - Mon, 07/18/2016 - 00:00

Older men and young women drive South African HIV epidemic

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2016.20273

Author: Amy Maxmen

Genetics study confirms social cycle that helps infection to spread.

Categories: Literature

Science under siege: how Venezuela’s economic crisis is affecting researchers

Nature - Mon, 07/18/2016 - 00:00

Science under siege: how Venezuela’s economic crisis is affecting researchers

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2016.20261

Author: Barbara Fraser

Chemist Claudio Bifano tells Nature about daily life in a country gripped by hunger, scarcity and violence.

Categories: Literature

India Plants Nearly 50 Million Trees to Fight Air Pollution, Climate Change

Yale Environment 360 - Fri, 07/15/2016 - 08:32

India planted 49.3 million trees in just 24 hours earlier this week in an effort to raise awareness of forest conservation, air pollution, and the fight against climate change — shattering the previous world record of 847,275, set in Pakistan in 2013. Officials said more than 800,000 people in Uttar Pradesh, the country’s most populous state, turned out to help, including students, government officials, and volunteers from nonprofit groups. As part of its climate commitments in Paris last December, India has pledged to increase its forest cover to 235 million acres by 2030. So the government officials has designated more than $6.2 billion for the nation's states to host tree planting drives. “The world has realized that serious efforts are needed to reduce carbon emissions to mitigate the effect of global climate change. Uttar Pradesh has made a beginning in this regard,” the state’s chief minister Akhilesh Yadav said .

Categories: Environmental News

First Greek science agency is rare source of joy for beleaguered researchers

Nature - Fri, 07/15/2016 - 00:00

First Greek science agency is rare source of joy for beleaguered researchers

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/535333a

Author: Alison Abbott

European Investment Bank provides surprise loan to halt startling brain drain.

Categories: Literature

Algae are melting away the Greenland ice sheet

Nature - Fri, 07/15/2016 - 00:00

Algae are melting away the Greenland ice sheet

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2016.20265

Author: Alexandra Witze

'Black and Bloom' project explores how microorganisms help to determine the pace of Arctic melting.

Categories: Literature

At Ground Zero for Rising Seas, A TV Weatherman Talks Climate

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 07:50

John Morales is part of a new breed of TV weather forecasters seeking to educate viewers on climate change and the threat it poses.

John Morales In South Florida, where porous limestone geology and sea level rise are already causing periodic flooding, he has a rapt audience. The chief meteorologist of the NBC affiliate station in Miami, Morales uses his broadcasts and Twitter feed to tie weather trends in South Florida to the broader influences of climate change. In an interview with Yale Environment 360, Morales discusses a heartening shift away from climate change skepticism among the nation’s television weather forecasters, the positive public reaction to his discussion of climate change, and the daunting threats facing the Miami area, ranked as one of the regions in the world most vulnerable to sea level rise.
Read the interview.

Categories: Environmental News

Science’s status shifts in new Brexit government

Nature - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 00:00

Science’s status shifts in new Brexit government

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2016.20264

Author: Davide Castelvecchi

Reshuffled UK administration signals change for research and science policy.

Categories: Literature

Six Years After BP Spill, Remaining Oil More Toxic Than Ever To Fish

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 11:50

Six years after the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig spilled nearly three million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico, scientists have found that ultraviolet light

Juvenile mahi-mahi. is transforming the remaining oil into a more toxic substance that hinders the development of heart, eye, and brain function in fish. The research, led by scientists at the University of California, Riverside and the University of Miami, exposed embryos and larvae of mahi-mahi from the Gulf of Mexico to what they called weathered (exposed to years of sunlight) and un-weathered oil (taken from the drilling site) from the Deepwater Horizon spill in 2010. Compared to fish exposed to un-weathered oil, the fish exposed to the weathered oil experienced impaired eye and neurological function, reduced heart rates, and a buildup of excess fluid in the heart.

Categories: Environmental News

Physiology: Pancreatic β-cell heterogeneity revisited

Nature - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 00:00

Physiology: Pancreatic β-cell heterogeneity revisited

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature18907

Authors: Susan Bonner-Weir & Cristina Aguayo-Mazzucato

Two analyses of insulin-producing β-cells reveal differences in what has long been considered a homogeneous population. These differences might reflect changes during maturation or ageing, or distinct cell lineages. See Letter p.430

Categories: Literature

A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development

Nature - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 00:00

A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature18637

Authors: Trygve E. Bakken, Jeremy A. Miller, Song-Lin Ding, Susan M. Sunkin, Kimberly A. Smith, Lydia Ng, Aaron Szafer, Rachel A. Dalley, Joshua J. Royall, Tracy Lemon, Sheila Shapouri, Kaylynn Aiona, James Arnold, Jeffrey L. Bennett, Darren Bertagnolli, Kristopher Bickley, Andrew Boe, Krissy Brouner, Stephanie Butler, Emi Byrnes, Shiella Caldejon, Anita Carey, Shelby Cate, Mike Chapin, Jefferey Chen, Nick Dee, Tsega Desta, Tim A. Dolbeare, Nadia Dotson, Amanda Ebbert, Erich Fulfs, Garrett Gee, Terri L. Gilbert, Jeff Goldy, Lindsey Gourley, Ben Gregor, Guangyu Gu, Jon Hall, Zeb Haradon, David R. Haynor, Nika Hejazinia, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Robert Howard, Jay Jochim, Marty Kinnunen, Ali Kriedberg, Chihchau L. Kuan, Christopher Lau, Chang-Kyu Lee, Felix Lee, Lon Luong, Naveed Mastan, Ryan May, Jose Melchor, Nerick Mosqueda, Erika Mott, Kiet Ngo, Julie Nyhus, Aaron Oldre, Eric Olson, Jody Parente, Patrick D. Parker, Sheana Parry, Julie Pendergraft, Lydia Potekhina, Melissa Reding, Zackery L. Riley, Tyson Roberts, Brandon Rogers, Kate Roll, David Rosen, David Sandman, Melaine Sarreal, Nadiya Shapovalova, Shu Shi, Nathan Sjoquist, Andy J. Sodt, Robbie Townsend, Lissette Velasquez, Udi Wagley, Wayne B. Wakeman, Cassandra White, Crissa Bennett, Jennifer Wu, Rob Young, Brian L. Youngstrom, Paul Wohnoutka, Richard A. Gibbs, Jeffrey Rogers, John G. Hohmann, Michael J. Hawrylycz, Robert F. Hevner, Zoltán Molnár, John W. Phillips, Chinh Dang, Allan R. Jones, David G. Amaral, Amy Bernard & Ed S. Lein

The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high-resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical

Categories: Literature

Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity

Nature - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 00:00

Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature18646

Authors: Helle Krogh Pedersen, Valborg Gudmundsdottir, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Tuulia Hyotylainen, Trine Nielsen, Benjamin A. H. Jensen, Kristoffer Forslund, Falk Hildebrand, Edi Prifti, Gwen Falony, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Florence Levenez, Joel Doré, Ismo Mattila, Damian R. Plichta, Päivi Pöhö, Lars I. Hellgren, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Shinichi Sunagawa, Sara Vieira-Silva, Torben Jørgensen, Jacob Bak Holm, Kajetan Trošt, MetaHIT Consortium, Karsten Kristiansen, Susanne Brix, Jeroen Raes, Jun Wang, Torben Hansen, Peer Bork, Søren Brunak, Matej Oresic, S. Dusko Ehrlich & Oluf Pedersen

Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant individuals is characterized by

Categories: Literature

Prefrontal neuronal assemblies temporally control fear behaviour

Nature - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 00:00

Prefrontal neuronal assemblies temporally control fear behaviour

Nature 535, 7612 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature18630

Authors: Cyril Dejean, Julien Courtin, Nikolaos Karalis, Fabrice Chaudun, Hélène Wurtz, Thomas C. M. Bienvenu & Cyril Herry

Precise spike timing through the coordination and synchronization of neuronal assemblies is an efficient and flexible coding mechanism for sensory and cognitive processing. In cortical and subcortical areas, the formation of cell assemblies critically depends on neuronal oscillations, which can precisely control the timing of spiking activity. Whereas this form of coding has been described for sensory processing and spatial learning, its role in encoding emotional behaviour remains unknown. Fear behaviour relies on the activation of distributed structures, among which the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is known to be critical for fear memory expression. In the dmPFC, the phasic activation of neurons to threat-predicting cues, a spike-rate coding mechanism, correlates with conditioned fear responses and supports the discrimination between aversive and neutral stimuli. However, this mechanism does not account for freezing observed outside stimuli presentations, and the contribution of a general spike-time coding mechanism for freezing in the dmPFC remains to be established. Here we use a combination of single-unit and local field potential recordings along with optogenetic manipulations to show that, in the dmPFC, expression of conditioned fear is causally related to the organization of neurons into functional assemblies. During fear behaviour, the development of 4 Hz oscillations coincides with the activation of assemblies nested in the ascending phase of the oscillation. The selective optogenetic inhibition of dmPFC neurons during the ascending or descending phases of this oscillation blocks and promotes conditioned fear responses, respectively. These results identify a novel phase-specific coding mechanism, which dynamically regulates the development of dmPFC assemblies to control the precise timing of fear responses.

Categories: Literature

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