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Corrections

Nature - Tue, 02/09/2016 - 01:00

Corrections

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/530143a

The two elements in the key for the map in the News story ‘Microcephaly surge in doubt’ (Nature530, 13–14; 2016) were accidentally swapped round. The corrected graphic can be seen at go.nature.com/ekmksk. The dollar conversion of €4.6 billion in the News story

Categories: Literature

Ice-Free Arctic Trade Route Unlikely For Decades to Come, Study says

Yale Environment 360 - Tue, 02/09/2016 - 00:42

Despite the impact climate change is having on Arctic sea ice, it will be decades before big cargo ships will be able to take an ice-free shortcut

Russian tanker making its way through ice. across the Arctic Ocean, according to a new report from the Arctic Institute. In recent years, countries have been vying for access to possible Arctic shipping lanes in the belief that use of the passage was more imminent and would contribute to shorter travel times and associated cost savings. But given the Arctic’s short sailing season, continuing treacherous ice conditions, the high costs associated with armoring cargo ships to withstand the ice, as well as low fuel prices, the Institute predicts that such crossings won’t become commercially viable until at least 2040. Until that time, shipping between Europe and Asia will continue to use the Suez Canal. Arctic shipping has decreased in recent years, from 1.3 metric tons in 2013 to 300,000 tons in 2014.

Categories: Environmental News

Coal Mining Regions of West Virginia Flatter After Decades of Mountaintop Removal

Yale Environment 360 - Mon, 02/08/2016 - 11:56

Decades of mountaintop coal mining have substantially altered the topography of central Appalachia, according to new

Appalachian mountain and valley affected by mining esearch by Duke University. Areas affected by mining are as much as 60 percent flatter than they were pre-mining. In mountaintop mining, bedrock is blasted away to uncover coal seams below the surface. In addition to mountains reduced in height, the valleys are also affected; they can be substantially shallower after mining debris is deposited in them. The fill can be as deep as 200 meters, which can significantly alter water flow and contamination as well. "The depth of these impacts is changing the way the geology, water, and vegetation interact in fundamental ways that are likely to persist far longer than other forms of land use," said Emily Bernhardt, a professor of biology at Duke and co-author on the study.

Categories: Environmental News

Change the system to halt harassment

Nature - Mon, 02/08/2016 - 01:00

Change the system to halt harassment

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/530131a

Author: Joan Schmelz

Universities and their senior staff must do more to deter, detect and punish all forms of inappropriate behaviour, says Joan Schmelz.

Categories: Literature

How should science funders deal with sexual harassers?

Nature - Mon, 02/08/2016 - 01:00

How should science funders deal with sexual harassers?

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/530138a

Author: Alexandra Witze

US science agencies threaten harsh penalties, but many have yet to take action.

Categories: Literature

Rising temperatures Skewing Gender Balance of Sea Turtles, Study Says

Yale Environment 360 - Fri, 02/05/2016 - 10:30

Rising global temperatures may be skewing the gender makeup of marine turtles, according to

Loggerhead sea turtle new research from Florida State University. The gender of marine hatchlings is influenced by the temperature of the sands in which they incubate, with warmer temperatures producing more females. “It's worrying that you could have an extreme skew in gender one way," said Mariana Fuentes, an assistant professor of oceanography at FSU. "Any changes in population structure can have real repercussions.” The scientists examined 25 years worth of data for 21 loggerhead turtle nesting beaches along the Brazilian coast, but the results are pertinent to other regions since temperature-dependent sex determination affects all turtles.

Categories: Environmental News

“A field of crop scientists” — Twitter delivers collective nouns for researchers

Nature - Fri, 02/05/2016 - 01:00

“A field of crop scientists” — Twitter delivers collective nouns for researchers

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). doi:10.1038/530133f

Author: Dalmeet Singh Chawla

The hashtag #scientistherdnames began with a blog post about the lack of group terms for scientists.

Categories: Literature

Only Known Wild Jaguar in the U.S. Filmed in Arizona in Rare Video

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 02/04/2016 - 10:28

Video of the only known wild jaguar still roaming the United States has been captured using remote sensor

"El Jefe" filmed roaming south of Tucson at night cameras in Arizona. The big cat, known by the nickname El Jefe (“The Boss”), is one of only four or five jaguars spotted in the wild in the U.S. in the past two decades. El Jefe is believed to live in the Santa Rita Mountains, about 25 miles south of Tucson. The footage was captured by Conversation CATalyst, which has about a dozen cameras in the area where the jaguar lives. Notoriously elusive, the video footage is the product of three years of tracking. Healthy numbers of jaguars, the third largest cats after lions and tigers, once roamed the Southwest, but they all but disappeared about 150 years ago due to habitat loss and hunting, shot to protect livestock. Jaguars are now protected by the Endangered Species Act, although El Jefe may be the last one in the U.S.

Categories: Environmental News

Energy Landscapes: An Aerial View Of Europe’s Carbon Footprint

Yale Environment 360 - Thu, 02/04/2016 - 07:29

Europe and the United States have very similar standards of living, but significantly different carbon footprints. Aerial photographer Alex MacLean documents this phenomenon in images that show how Northern Europe uses smart design and planning to reduce the amount of carbon it emits.

Categories: Environmental News

Tasmanian bushfires threaten iconic ancient forests

Nature - Thu, 02/04/2016 - 01:00

Tasmanian bushfires threaten iconic ancient forests

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2016.19308

Author: Emma Marris

Blazes have encroached on ecosystems that date back more than 180 million years.

Categories: Literature

Biotech giant publishes failures to confirm high-profile science

Nature - Thu, 02/04/2016 - 01:00

Biotech giant publishes failures to confirm high-profile science

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2016.19269

Author: Monya Baker

Amgen posts three studies at new online channel for discussing reproducibility.

Categories: Literature

China’s Wind Power Sector Experienced Rapid Growth in 2015

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 11:26

China installed nearly half of all new global wind power generation last year and added as much new wind energy capacity in one year as the total capacity of the leading U.S. wind-producing states — Texas, Iowa, and California. Bloomberg New Energy Finance reports that China installed nearly 29 gigawatts of new wind-power capacity last year, surpassing the previous record of 21 gigawatts in 2014. China’s new wind energy capacity dwarfed the next-largest market, the United States, which added 8.6 gigawatts in 2015. Analysts said China’s wind sector grew rapidly because of declining manufacturing and installation costs, generous government feed-in tariffs, improving transmission capacity, and the government’s campaign to curb pollution from coal-fired power plants.

Categories: Environmental News

Five Questions for Robert Bullard On the Flint Water Crisis and Justice

Yale Environment 360 - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 08:30

In Flint, Michigan, a city of 100,000 whose population is 56 percent African American, a state cost-cutting measure to begin drawing drinking water supplies from Texas Southern University Robert D. Bullard the Flint River has led to a public health crisis. The corrosive waters of the river have leached lead out of Flint’s aging water pipes, causing thousands of children to ingest dangerously high levels of lead — a problem that was ignored for months. Yale Environment 360 asked Robert D. Bullard — dean of the Barbara Jordan-Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs at Texas Southern University and the man widely considered the first to fully articulate the concept of environmental justice — five questions about how the situation in Flint reflects on environmental inequality in the United States.
Read more.

Categories: Environmental News

US panel greenlights creation of male 'three-person' embryos

Nature - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 01:00

US panel greenlights creation of male 'three-person' embryos

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature.2016.19290

Author: Sara Reardon

But federal law prevents regulators from approving the technique.

Categories: Literature

Climate science: A great Arctic ice shelf

Nature - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 01:00

Climate science: A great Arctic ice shelf

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature16878

Authors: Eugene Domack

Newly mapped features on the floor of the Arctic Ocean suggest that the Arctic basin was once covered by a one-kilometre-thick, flowing ice shelf derived from large ice sheets in eastern Siberia, Arctic Canada and the Barents Sea.

Categories: Literature

Ageing: Out with the old

Nature - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 01:00

Ageing: Out with the old

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature16875

Authors: Jesús Gil & Dominic J. Withers

The selective elimination of cells that have adopted an irreversible, senescent state has now been shown to extend the lifespan of mice and to ameliorate some age-related disease processes. See Article p.184

Categories: Literature

Genetics: Asymmetric breaks in DNA cause sterility

Nature - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 01:00

Genetics: Asymmetric breaks in DNA cause sterility

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature16870

Authors: Jiri Forejt

The part that the mouse gene Prdm9 plays in generating double-strand breaks in DNA has now been linked to its putative role in speciation, thanks to experiments that use a 'humanized' version of the gene. See Article p.171

Categories: Literature

Re-engineering the zinc fingers of PRDM9 reverses hybrid sterility in mice

Nature - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 01:00

Re-engineering the zinc fingers of PRDM9 reverses hybrid sterility in mice

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature16931

Authors: Benjamin Davies, Edouard Hatton, Nicolas Altemose, Julie G. Hussin, Florencia Pratto, Gang Zhang, Anjali Gupta Hinch, Daniela Moralli, Daniel Biggs, Rebeca Diaz, Chris Preece, Ran Li, Emmanuelle Bitoun, Kevin Brick, Catherine M. Green, R. Daniel Camerini-Otero, Simon R. Myers & Peter Donnelly

The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 directs positioning of the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination in mice and humans. Prdm9 is the only mammalian speciation gene yet identified and is responsible for sterility phenotypes in male hybrids of certain mouse subspecies. To investigate PRDM9

Categories: Literature

Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan

Nature - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 01:00

Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature16932

Authors: Darren J. Baker, Bennett G. Childs, Matej Durik, Melinde E. Wijers, Cynthia J. Sieben, Jian Zhong, Rachel A. Saltness, Karthik B. Jeganathan, Grace Casaclang Verzosa, Abdulmohammad Pezeshki, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Jordan D. Miller & Jan M. van Deursen

Cellular senescence, a stress-induced irreversible growth arrest often characterized by expression of p16Ink4a (encoded by the Ink4a/Arf locus, also known as Cdkn2a) and a distinctive secretory phenotype, prevents the proliferation of preneoplastic cells and has beneficial roles in tissue remodelling during

Categories: Literature

Covariation of deep Southern Ocean oxygenation and atmospheric CO2 through the last ice age

Nature - Wed, 02/03/2016 - 01:00

Covariation of deep Southern Ocean oxygenation and atmospheric CO2 through the last ice age

Nature 530, 7589 (2016). doi:10.1038/nature16514

Authors: Samuel L. Jaccard, Eric D. Galbraith, Alfredo Martínez-García & Robert F. Anderson

No single mechanism can account for the full amplitude of past atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration variability over glacial–interglacial cycles. A build-up of carbon in the deep ocean has been shown to have occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the mechanisms responsible for the release of the deeply sequestered carbon to the atmosphere at deglaciation, and the relative importance of deep ocean sequestration in regulating millennial-timescale variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration before the Last Glacial Maximum, have remained unclear. Here we present sedimentary redox-sensitive trace-metal records from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean that provide a reconstruction of transient changes in deep ocean oxygenation and, by inference, respired carbon storage throughout the last glacial cycle. Our data suggest that respired carbon was removed from the abyssal Southern Ocean during the Northern Hemisphere cold phases of the deglaciation, when atmospheric CO2 concentration increased rapidly, reflecting—at least in part—a combination of dwindling iron fertilization by dust and enhanced deep ocean ventilation. Furthermore, our records show that the observed covariation between atmospheric CO2 concentration and abyssal Southern Ocean oxygenation was maintained throughout most of the past 80,000 years. This suggests that on millennial timescales deep ocean circulation and iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean played a consistent role in modifying atmospheric CO2 concentration.

Categories: Literature

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